Luther, because of his inner-directed
nominalism, in which Jesus becomes one's personal Lord and Savior, had something to offer Christianity, but Luther could not understand the notion of human participation in God's being, or in God's grace as a rejuvenation of something good that is already within the human soul, or in the communicant's sharing in the one sacrifice of Calvary.
Here's a beautifully concise summary, from Concordia University's Laura Mitchell: Introverts think to talk go deep energise alone are inner-directed
need concentration focus on thoughts and ideas prefer one-on-ones.
If you want more help with raising happy, spiritually competent, inner-directed
, successful kids, read Margot Sunderland's The Science of Parenting and Paul Tough's How Children Succeed.
Such parallels, he adds, are fundamentally un-Reaganesque: "You will never find a speech, an interview, a quote, a musing by Ronald Reagan saying 'Well, I want to be the next Calvin Coolidge' or 'I want to be the next Franklin Roosevelt.' Ronald Reagan was far too self-confident and inner-directed
to say something like that."
The fact that this dance wasn't swiftly appropriated like the Nae-Nae or Whip suggests that it operates under inner-directed
In "The Lonely Crowd," the American sociologist David Riesman identified three broad cultural types: tradition-directed cultures that look to inherited rituals, morals and values for guidance; inner-directed
cultures, in which people behave according to self-nourished values; and other-directed cultures that react predominantly to external norms and peer influences.
He also cites the historian Bertram Wyatt-Brown, whose Honor and Violence describes in some considerable detail a "primitive" and "fighting" sense of honor that is "other-directed" (that is, responding to the opinions of onlookers) rather than "inner-directed
" (that is, based on parental and church training in right and wrong).
Instead of being inner-directed
leaders driven by their own beliefs, they become outer-directed pleasers driven by incomplete numbers.
Margery Kempe (circa 1373-1438) was willful, inner-directed
and self-determined--many would say to a fault.
Simply put, in the postwar period, painting has explored the increasing tension between an "inner-directed
" form of image associated with the assertion both of conscious will and unconscious drives, and an "outer-directed" one, centered on pictures thoroughly saturated by cultural codes.
To understand what's changed, Bowman goes back to sociologist David Riesman's 1950 classic The Lonely Crowd, in which the Harvard professor famously described an affluent, industrialized America whose populace was in transition from being "inner-directed
" to "other-directed." In the old world of fixed values and social roles, people were generally guided by an internal "gyroscope" set in their youth.
Here he begins with Bourdieu but quickly turns to Riesman's classic The Lonely Crowd (1950) and his inner-directed
and outer-directed social character exemplars.