Mallet, "Acetoacetate augments P-adrenergic inotropism
of stunned myocardium by an antioxidant mechanism," American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol.
In the present study, we have showed that a lowfrequency electromagnetic stimulus was able to counteract both the basal inotropism
and the [beta]-adrenergically enhanced inotropism
, probably due to the internalization of [[beta].sub.2]ARs  and/or the inhibition of T-type calcium channels via AA/LTE4 signaling pathway .
This phenomenon suggests that mechanisms controlling the cardiovascular apparatus can successfully manage to maintain SV in the face of an impaired pre-load and thanks to the modulation of cardiac inotropism
(Crisafulli et al., 2003b; 2004; 2006a; Kilgour et al., 1995).
Because the nervous system regulates cardiac chronotropism and inotropism
as well as vascular tone, it can also regulate SBP and DBP.
To evaluate myocardial contractility, which is defined as the inotropic state of the cardiac muscle (24), dP/dt was used; dP/dt is an important index of myocardial contractility because it is directly influenced by cardiac inotropism
In fact, it was verified that R(+)-pulegone causes negative inotropism
in mammalian myocardium that was related to blockage of L-type [Ca.sup.2+] current (de Cerqueira et al.
 In vitro, ghrelin decreases inotropism
In 1992, Neidhardt and colleagues  demonstrated for the first time that CDP-choline is able to protect rat myocardial cells against the detrimental effect of anoxia on heart rate and force of contraction (inotropism
), suggesting that CDP-choline may be useful in the treatment ofmyocardial ischaemia.
In our study population of 35 young healthy subjects, taking an ED containing sugar, caffeine (0.03%), and taurine (0.4%) showed a significant change of myocardial function of both LV and RV one hour after drinking it, suggesting a possible positive effect on cardiac inotropism