Students of the Russian intelligentsia will recognize in Gasprinskiy's language references to the discourse of the Russian Populists who wanted to "go to the people" in the 1870s, to the activism of the "small-deeds liberals" in the 1880s, and to the Russian intelligentsias overall trope of self-sacrifice for societal improvement.
This sense of responsibility to the "popular masses" and to the objectives of the circle regarding the Muslim intelligentsia bears the stamp of Gasprinskiy's views and indicates that the bylaw's authors were well aware of the methods and historical background of the Russian as well as other intelligentsias.
They assumed the existence of spontaneously formed intelligentsias (Polish and others), each with a self-appointed mission to identify and articulate the national identity and to speak to the foreign colonial authorities on behalf of their own people, victims of political aggression, in order to lead them in the modernization and transformation of their society.
Silent Intelligentsia: A Study of Civilizational Oppression Edited by Jan Kieniewicz.
coffee is roasted in small batches by trained artisan roasters.
Mignolo's work does more than just illustrate that yes, preliterate intelligentsias
did exist, it reveals the cultural blinders behind the way Goody framed the question in the first place.
They stake out two kinds of cultural authority: one is a social critique typical of postindustrial intelligentsias
, and the other is their native origin (to which they might refer, across a divide).
Benjamin Tromly's Making the Soviet Intelligentsia
not only questions the metaphor of the Thaw as an index of the intelligentsias
decade-long search for freedom but boldly targets its elitism, which "universalizes a reading of Soviet history that was not shared by all intellectuals, let alone Soviet society as a whole" (20).
In the Georgian context, Jughashvili's firm defense of the intelligentsias
interest in the party was more remarkable.
(44) Sorokin places the systematic use of intelligentsia
in its collective form "no earlier than the very end of the 1860s"; see his Razvitie slovarnogo sostava, 146-47.
Through his series of essays on 19th-century Russian thinkers, Berlin had a crucial influence in shaping the way Western (particularly Anglo-American) scholars understand the Russian intelligentsia
. Second, during the highly politicized Cold War, his essays provided new insights and a new approach to the study of the Russian intelligentsia
Laurie Manchester, Holy Fathers, Secular Sons: Clergy, Intelligentsia
, and the Modern Self in Revolutionary Russia.