In the third type 2A cadaver a longitudinal vein connected to the left superior intercostal vein, which then descended to drain the 4th to 9th left posterior intercostal veins terminating by joining the HV at the level of T10-T11 after crossing anterior to the 10th left posterior intercostal vein: this longitudinal vein can be considered an AHV draining into the HV.
Cranially, the azygos lines join the persistent cranial ends of the postcardinal veins which form the root of the azygos on the right and together with the distal part of the anterior cardinal vein on the left, form the left superior intercostal vein (Mahato, 2009).
The tributaries are right superior intercostal veins, 4th to 11th right posterior intercostal veins, hemiazygos vein, accessory hemiazygos vein, right bronchial vein, several oesophageal, mediastinal and pericardial veins.
In contrast to conventional full abdominoplasty, partial procedures are able to avoid the abundant periumbilical veins. In utilizing two partial abdominal operations, we were able to complete minimal undermining, ensuring stable perfusion from the perforating vessels of the deep inferior epigastric system and intercostal veins in order to avoid skin flap necrosis.