The fiber has been surface treated and sized to improve its handling characteristics, interlaminar
shear strength, compressive strength, and structural properties.
However, the area of interlaminar
shear properties still needs investigation so as to produce composites with improved through-the-thickness properties.
 There are three approaches available to access the epidural space for injection purposes i.e., transforaminal, caudal, and interlaminar
. Compared with an interlaminar
or caudal epidural steroid injection, a transforaminal approach provides minimal risk of dural puncture, better delivery of medication to the site of radiculopathy, and increased spread into the epidural space.
The effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar
epidural injections in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain.
The delamination resistance of a fiber composite is measured in terms of interlaminar
fracture energy, Glc (also known as the critical strain energy release rate) .
Comparison of the efficacy of caudal, interlaminar
, and transforaminal epidural injections in managing lumbar disc herniation: is one method superior to the other?
Established in 2005, Paradigm Spine's primary product is the coflex Interlaminar
Stabilization device, a differentiated and minimally invasive motion preserving stabilization implant that is FDA PMA approved for the treatment of moderate to severe lumbar spinal stenosis in conjunction with decompression.
The disadvantages are generally narrower interlaminar
spaces and slower CSF flow.
The dorsal epidural space (Figure 1) at the interlaminar
level is the target site for injection, just deep to the ligamentum flavum.
Resuslts of contact angle measurement, flexural test and interlaminar
shear test of fabricated composites are presented in this paper.