RA is a disease of multifactorial cause with more than 60% affected by the genetic influence.9 Almost 30 genes have been found to be associated with RA susceptibility and these account for more than 50% genetic contribution of RA.10 Remaining etiology is being participated by various environmental factors like infection, obesity, smoking and other environmental pollutants.11 Among the genetic factors, interleukins
play a chief role in causing inflammation that leads to progressive joint destruction.
In this study the average consumption of snuff by snuff users group was 17.1+-8.4 years and average duration of snuff placement was 90.5+-8.6 minutes per day.25 Similarly a local study assessed the proinflammatory interleukins
IL-1 [alpha] and IL-6 and thyroid function in naswar users.
Inflammatory markers including various interleukins
were increased in all tissues.
It is a well-established fact that cytokines affect reproductive processes, such as follicular development, ovulation, fertilisation, implantation and embryonic development.1 Cytokines concomitant with foetal and maternal interface play an imperative role in normal conception.2 Interleukins
(IL) are cytokines secreted by leukocytes that act on other leukocytes.
C-reactive protein, selected interleukins
, growth factors, neurofilaments, microRNA, and others, either in serum or in CSF, have been proposed as possible prognosis biomarkers [18-21].
Table 2: Median concentration of interleukins
according to the WHO clinical stage of HIV.
in Cancer Biology: Their Heterogeneous Role
are a group of cytokines that act specifically as modulators of inflammatory response.
are a group of cytokines expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
The intrathymic environment is characterized by a complex network of paracrine, autocrine, and endocrine signals involving both interleukins
and thymic peptides, which can be envisioned to operate in a synergistic network to carry the evolving T cell through its stepwise development to a mature T cell.
Crameri et al., "Interleukins
, from 1 to 37, and interferon-y: receptors, functions, and roles in diseases," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Rand Sutherland et at proposes that melatonin may worsen symptoms by stimulating mononuclear cells to produce interleukins
which cause tissue to become inflamed during an allergic response.