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NADH transfers electrons to oxygen via cytochrome c oxidase (COX 7c) and contributes to the formation of a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, a process that accounts for the synthesis of >94% of ATP in organisms [39].
This includes Bax, inducing permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane, which releases soluble proteins from the intermembrane space into the cytosol, where they promote caspase activation.
In mitochondria-rich cells, cytoplasm degradation was observed, with disappearance or disorganization of endoplasmic reticulum network and mitochondrial degradation evidenced by mitochondrial crest degeneration and dilation of intermembrane space (Figs.
(2013) Dual function of mitochondrial Nm23-H4 protein in phosphotransfer and intermembrane lipid transfer: A cardiolipin-dependent switch.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organism that consists of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), intermembrane space, inner mitochondrial membrane, and matrix space,[1] which is prevalent in all mammalian eukaryotic cells other than mature erythrocytes.
Hyperpolarized mitochondria have an elevated transmembrane potential because of the excess of H+ ions in the intermembrane space in comparison with the matrix.
Reduced glutathione (GSH) scavenges [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] via GPx, ubiquitously expressed both in the mitochondria matrix and intermembrane space [51].
The proton gradient is used to fuel pyruvate uptake from the cytosol into the matrix via pyruvate transporter, pumping of sodium, potassium from the matrix into the intermembrane space /cytosol, phosphate transport from the cytosol into the matrix space, and ATP generation by the F0F1-ATPase.
CoQ10 is well characterized as intrinsic part of the ETC for its role in electron transport in mitochondrial respiratory chain between complexes I/II and III and the connected proton translocation from mitochondrial matrix to intermembrane space.
Formation of [O.sub.2.sup.*-] at complexes I and III primarily occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, but some of the [O.sub.2.sup.*-]-produced at complex III is produced in the intermembrane space [63].
Subsequently, this leads to an increased voltage gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, caused by the efflux of protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane lumen by complexes I, III, and IV [13].
Melatonin may directly suppress follicular (thecal) steroidogenesis at an early stage in the steroid synthesis pathway by blocking the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which facilitates translocation of cholesterol across the intermembrane space into the inner membrane to be cleaved into pregnenolone.