where l is the molecular MFP and [beta] is the correction factor representing the effect of intermolecular
Gecko toepads adhere through a combination of weak intermolecular
forces, called van der Waals forces, and frictional adhesion.
Among his discoveries are: (i) density scaling of viscoelastic properties and its relation to the steepness of the intermolecular
repulsive potential; (ii) the invariance of relaxation times at various phase transitions; (iii) the non-ideality of polymer isotope mixtures and dynamic heterogeneity in miscible blends; (iv) phenomena in rubbery networks, including properties of double network rubbers and the origin of the Mullins effect; and (v) elastomeric coatings that enhance the resistance of hard substrates to impact penetration, technology applicable to military armor and civilian infrastructure protection.
The draft guidance interprets "chemical action" to mean, "Through either chemical reaction or intermolecular
forces or both, the product: mediates a bodily response at the cellular or molecular level, or combines with or modifies an entity so as to alter that entity's interaction with the body of man or other animals." ("Entity" includes chemicals and microbial life.) A ''chemical reaction" has occurred if covalent or ionic bonds have formed or been broken.
They are most commonly mixed with an inert substance (i.e., neutral, having no impact on intermolecular
Both the storage (G') and loss (G") modulus reflected the strength of the intermolecular
His perspectives are mechanistic aspects of the SNAR reactions, structure and reactivity of anionic sigma-complexes, the superelectrophilic dimensions in SNAR and related sigma-complexation processes, synthetic aspects of intermolecular
SNAR reactions, intramolecular SNAR reactions, nucleophilic aromatic substitution of hydrogen, and other SNAR substitution pathways.
This is because the gelation of a solvent by a gelator is the result of gelator-gelator and gelator-solvent interactions, which involve specific and nonspecific intermolecular
dialogue is vital for reproduction in general, but it also serves functions that benefit the male and female individually, sometimes leading to a microscopic battle between the sexes, said Wolfner.
The Clarity OTX protocol uses a propriety mixture of chaotropes, detergents, and other dispersants to disrupt intermolecular
interactions that are common for oligonucleotides in biological matrices.
Following an introduction to the fundamentals of thermodynamics and intermolecular
forces, they present an introduction to the classical models and their applications, including cubic equations of state, activity coefficient models, and their combination in the EoS/GE mixing rules.