The pest acts as a vector to plant diseases, especially the viral ones and sometimes injects toxic substances during feeding, which causes deformation such as dieback and stem weakening with short internodes
.The mealybug also affects other crops such as passion fruits, pineapples, citrus, and sugar cane, among others.
The best internodes
distance 2.32 cm was recorded in B-318-A genotype.
Nodes with diaphragms divide the consecutive bamboo stalk into a series of segments and two neighboring internodes
sharing one node (Ding and Liese 1995).
Myrmecophytic species of Cecropia (those that harbor ants) also possess specialized parenchyma lining the inside surface of young internodes
, though the exact role of this tissue in the mutualism is still unclear (Valverde & Hanson, 2011).
elongated and stem initiate sugar accumulation where most of the photo-assimilate stored in the form of sucrose (Hoffmann-Thoma et al., 1996; Lingle, 1999; Almodares et al., 2008; Almodares and Hadi, 2009; Calvino and Messing, 2012; Slewinski, 2012).
The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes
bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha.
Vegetative organs, especially internodes
and leaves, are the primary sources of biomass.
The correlation coefficient between number of internodes
and altitude was negative and significant indicating that other environmental factors (other than altitude) and/or nonenvironmental factors might account for the variation for this particular character.
First is culm bending-type lodging which occurs when plants fail to resist bending pressure, as is often seen in the upper internodes
of rice affected by strong winds and rain.
High GCV were recorded for fresh leaf weight (22.51), millable cane (22.28), bud size (24.02), and individual cane weight (37.79); while leaf blade width (19.43), dried leaf weight (15.42), number of tillers (16.20), and cane diameter (17.58) showed medium GCV and leaf blade length (4.45), chlorophyll content (5.39), number of internodes
length (8.55), plant height (7.14), stalk length (4.38), and brix% (7.05) exhibited low GCV.