The rest of the "Zondervan Handbook of Biblical Archaeology" is devoted to a book-by-book (Genesis through Revelation) presentation of the most significant archaeological discoveries that enhance our understanding of the biblical text, including a section on the intertestamental
Although, Jesus' resurrection was not directly seen to have been predicted in the Old Testament and in the Intertestamental
Literature as a background to the New Testament understanding of resurrection, it was seen that the idea of resurrection was not alien to the Hebrews or Judaizers.
The biblical and theological survey focuses on mission in both the New Testament and the Old Testament (with special references to Isaiah and Psalms) and in the intertestamental
(9.) For an in-depth analysis of the development of resurrection imagery, see George Nickelsburg, Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental
Judaism (HTS 26; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972).
And this period is so important for understanding the transition from biblical religion(s) to the rabbis' norms and beliefs: the period that I awkwardly call "the postbiblical prerabbinic period" is as crucial for understanding Jewish history as the equivalent Christian "intertestamental
"They call the last 500 years 'the tradition.' They seem to know little about the fathers of the church or the intertestamental
period, or the Jewish tradition, or the desert mothers and fathers, which is all part of the tradition, too."
The conclusion put forth for the first part of this large work is that intertestamental
writings, especially those of the Enoch corpus, are abundantly represented in the Dead Sea scrolls and that these are echoed in the Qur'an.
NICKELSBURG, G., Resurrection, Inmortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental
Judaism and Early Christianity, Expanded Edition, New Haeven: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Satan does not play a major role in the Hebrew Bible; it was during the intertestamental
period that Jews began to separate evil from YYWH and developed a complex demonology to explain evil.
The words nephesh and ruach (soul and spirit, respectively) were given additional meanings and "could now refer to the discarnate dead as well as to the whole person, life-force, and the breath." Cooper acknowledges that there was some influence of Greek thinking in various strains of intertestamental
writings, but he contends, "there is little evidence of the principle antibody, antimaterial bias of Greek idealism or Gnosticism." (11)
One obvious way that Jewish intertestamental
material entered into the Christian Bible was through Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures.
(10) This is obvious from the intertestamental
literature, and from some instances in rabbinic literature.