In vocal performance, there are other means to indicate line ending: first of all, "punctuational pauses"; but also intonation contour
, and some more elusive cues, such as the lengthening of the last speech sound or syllable, or overarticulation of the word boundaries, e.
The AM approach (Pierrehumbert 1980) is a means of using discrete units to categorize a continuous intonation contour
The AM theory has a phonological approach to intonation and views an intonation contour
as a string of H(igh) and L(ow) tones.
In one of them, the intonation contour
forms a high plateau after a rise to the accented syllable (Russian contour (a) in Figure 16).
It must be borne in mind that the meaning of an utterance is the sum of the intonation contour
effect and the verbal meaning of lexical and grammatical units, so the attitude of incredulity may stem from sources other than pitch direction.
What is more, as Figure 2 shows, in Gielgud 2 the words "heaven" and "that" are uttered on one falling intonation contour
, effectively grouping "that" effectively grouping "that" contour backward rather than forward.
The shared intonation contour
and the lack of pause groups the word "that" backward; the listener's syntactic knowledge and the sustained [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] indicating a rest suggest a new start after "heaven.
Note that the intonation contour
is not associated with the negator as such, but the negation-marking dip-rise is located relative to the clause edge.
The other half of the infants heard the speech with the exaggerated intonation contour
characteristic of parentese.
So as to investigate these observations in an objective, systematic way, van Leyden took a number of example utterances from the two dialects which feature 'dialect-typical' intonation contours
, and electronically created new versions of the utterances in which listeners are presented with (a) low-pass filtered speech (yielding an unintelligible, muffled quality) in which the intonation contour
had been monotonised (flattened); (b) low-pass filtered speech with the original intonation contour
preserved; (c) the original speech, monotonised; and (d) the original speech with its original intonation contour
Entitled "Notes on The Rise-Fall Intonation Contour
in Yiddish," the paper focused on one intonation contour
(not the one I had noted in the elevator), and remarked in passing that there were three intonation contours
in spoken Yiddish that might be related to (or derived from) Talmudic chant.
For the purposes of analysis, the overall melody of the utterance is referred to in the literature as intonation contour
and the chunks of utterances for the description of intonation as intonation units, tone units, sense groups, thought groups, etc.