Inherent to this type of motivation are four levels of regulation: external regulation (less self-determined; performing an activity only to receive a reward or avoid a punishment), introjected
regulation (acting to avoid blame or anxiety, intending to ensure self-preservation by protecting the integrity of the ego), identified regulation (the second most self-determined level of regulation, emerging when the importance of a particular behaviour for the achievement of a goal is recognized) and integrated regulation (the most self-determined level of regulation, takes place when the consequences of a behaviour are congruent with the values and needs of the individual and the regulation is fully internalized) (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991, 2000, 2008).
Extrinsic motivation is determined by four types of regulation and their regulatory processes: external regulation is characterized by the need to obtain external rewards or avoid punishment; in introjected
regulation, unlike external regulation, the rewards involved in the regulatory process are internal, individuals feel that they "need" or "must" perform a certain activity, but there is no feeling or "wanting" to do it; the regulation identified is more internally regulated behavior, in this case individuals consider their participation in the activity important; integrated regulation is considered the most self-determined of the extrinsic motivations (Fernandes & Vasconcelos-Raposo, 2005).
Underlying extrinsic motivation are different levels of regulation: external regulation (an intention to receive a reward or avoid a punishment), introjected
regulation (avoidance of guilt or anxiety), and identified regulation (recognition of the importance of an action to achieve a goal).
According to Gallo, they "took France as an object, idealized it, introjected
it, and fused it with their egos" (18).
The CRIS measures identified and introjected
regulation (internalization) of religiosity.
Secondly, she is identifying with the abuser through her excessive drinking, her introjected
Scores for general mindfulness and both mindfulness of the mind and of the body related positively to intrinsic motivation, identified regulation and introjected
regulation subscales scores (see Table 4).
Along the continuum, from the more self-determined to the less self-determined, are four levels of extrinsic motivation: integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected
regulation, and external regulation (Deci and Ryan, 1985).
Along these lines, a slightly less external form of regulation would be an introjected
regulation, which is reflected when there is not an actual external pressure, but rather a sense of guilt felt from not engaging in a specific behavior, such as exercise (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Multiple regression analyses revealed that gender, intrinsic and introjected
regulation were positive predictors, BMI and external regulation were negative predictors of the flow experience.
Self- determination theory examines AM in three different dimensions; intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation), extrinsic motivation (extrinsic motivation identified regulation, extrinsic motivation introjected
regulation, extrinsic motivation based on external regulation) and amotivation.
Following a sequence of projection and introjection, Klein (1932) considered the obsessional neurotic to typically reproject the fear of being attacked or destroyed by introjected
objects while attempting to 'control' (p.