There are two forms of controlled motivation: external regulation, where activities are performed for external prompts or factors (e.g., to gain rewards or to get a good grade), and introjected
regulation, where activities are performed through internal pressure or self-set contingencies (e.g., feeling of guilt).
Reading through the opposing person's text-based message may be felt like a voice inside one's head, as if the other individual's inner, psychological self and their self's effect on the other, have been integrated or introjected
into one's consciousness.
Extrinsic motivation can be further subdivided into integrated, identified, introjected
and external regulation.
Regulation represents the second form of extrinsic motivation, where behaviors are sustained by cognitive-affective consequences, self-administered by individuals, through the dynamics of self and social approval (Assor, Vansteenkiste, & Kaplan, 2009; Ryan, 1995).
It was evident that Miriam had felt well supported and loved and had introjected
primarily positive object relationships with all three significant caregivers.
On the other hand, the SDT proposes that motivation occurs on a continuum that ranges from intrinsic motivation to different forms of extrinsic motivation (for example, identified, introjected
and external regulation) until amotivation (absence of motivation).
It consists of seven subscales, with four items each that measure intrinsic motivation (three types: to know, to accomplish things, to experience stimulation), extrinsic motivation (three types of regulation: identified, introjected
, external), and amotivation.
It measures amotivation, external, introjected
, identified, and intrinsic regulation of exercise behavior.
The 4 types of regulatory processes that represent extrinsic motivation are integrated motivation, identified regulation, introjected
regulation, and external regulation; all differ in the level of internalization of extrinsic motivation.
Inherent to this type of motivation are four levels of regulation: external regulation (less self-determined; performing an activity only to receive a reward or avoid a punishment), introjected
regulation (acting to avoid blame or anxiety, intending to ensure self-preservation by protecting the integrity of the ego), identified regulation (the second most self-determined level of regulation, emerging when the importance of a particular behaviour for the achievement of a goal is recognized) and integrated regulation (the most self-determined level of regulation, takes place when the consequences of a behaviour are congruent with the values and needs of the individual and the regulation is fully internalized) (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991, 2000, 2008).