References in periodicals archive ?
This ionizing light has never been measured accurately in hot stars, and DEUCE will make the first calibrated measurement of it, telling us the contribution stars could have had to help ionize the universe," Nicholas Erickson, a graduate student at the University of Colorado Boulder working with the project, said in ( the statement.
But researchers weren't sure if the tiny galaxies that populated the early universe could have produced enough radiation to ionize all of space.
When an X-ray photon collides with an atom, the atom may absorb the energy of the photon and boost an electron to a higher orbital level or if the photon is very energetic, it may knock an electron from the atom altogether, causing the atom to ionize. Generally, a larger atom is more likely to absorb an X-ray photon, since larger atoms have greater energy differences between orbital electrons.
A system of high-voltage coils attached to a small transformer, which generates a room-temperature plasma field inside a package, can ionize the gases inside.
Neutron absorption on the helium produces protons and tritons that ionize the fill gas.
Company's EC systems, the Coulochem[R], CoulArray[R] and the Discov-Array, can be integrated into virtually any Mass Spectrometer or LCMS system and can be used as a powerful tool to oxidize/ ionize many different types of compounds.