However, the most accepted theory is the convergence projection theory which states that multiple nerves converge onto a single shared neural pathway with the CNS unable to differentiate the origin of stimulation.2,3 Irritative
lesions in the areas supplied by these nerves such as the neck, nose and paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx may also cause pain in the ear.
In fact, tamsulosin is used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia in men, however, its use might also be effective in women to relieve obstructive and irritative
urinary symptoms via the mechanism mentioned above.
A six-year-old girl was referred to pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic with complaint of irritative
cough and dyspnea that continues for a long time in spite of medical treatment.
Of children with learning complaints, 68.4% had vestibular alterations of irritative
peripheral origin, both unilateral and bilateral.
Common symptoms include dysuria, weak urine flow, mass, dyspareunia, post-voiding drip, frequent bowel movements, and irritative
lower urinary system symptoms.
were made on seven healthy volunteers and all were negative at 20 minutes, thus excluding an irritative
Depending on the degree of disease involvement, patients may present with painless hematuria, irritative
urinary symptoms, and obstructive symptoms.
Some of them also may have irritative
voiding, urinary frequency and urgency, or mild stress incontinence."
Patients characteristically present with painless gross hematuria and irritative
lower urinary tract symptoms.
Serum Prostatic Specific Antigen (SPSA) was performed on abnormal Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) or severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS; irritative
Radiation also can cause irritative
urinary symptoms and, in some cases, rectal side effects.
Histologically characterized by smooth muscle proliferation, BPH, when symptomatic, is most often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consisting of obstructive and irritative