Quantification of islet autoantibodies
has proved difficult.
However, these are broad and prospective studies in which a large number of relatives were included for different islet autoantibodies
screening and followed up to predict DM development as the presence of these antibodies is highly predictive for future DM; 3-5 years risk may reach 28-66%.29 The positive predictive value within five years had been proved by Verge et al.
Lee, "Comparison of the prevalence of islet autoantibodies
according to age and disease duration in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus," Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.
can discriminate maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) from Type 1 diabetes.
Each participant was enrolled at infancy, between 2004 and 2010, and followed in three to six months intervals for 10 years to track any development of islet autoantibodies
and subsequent type 1 diabetes.
Congenital rubella was associated with induction of islet autoantibodies
in 10% to 20% of congenital rubella cases with patients 5 to 25 years of age [108, 139].
Maternal type 1 diabetes reduces the risk of islet autoantibodies
: Relationships with birth weight and maternal HbA1C.
Currently, the earliest identifiable process in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes has been the development of autoimmunity to pancreatic beta cells in the measurable form of islet autoantibodies
Anette-G Ziegler at the Diabetes Research Institute in Munich and her colleagues reported that of the 1,610 at-risk infants enrolled in the BABYDIAB trial, those given gluten-containing cereal prior to age 3 months were over five times as likely to develop pancreatic islet autoantibodies
as those children first exposed to gluten-based cereals between 3 and 6 months of age.
In general, the finding of islet autoantibodies
makes the diagnosis of MODY very unlikely, and genetic testing should only be performed if other clinical characteristics strongly suggest this form of diabetes rather than DM1 (33).
ZnT8A was analyzed through ELISA (Bio-Vendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Czech Republic) with 99% (n = 90) specificity and 72% (n = 50) sensitivity, evaluated in the Islet Autoantibodies
Standardization Program 2012.
The search terms are as follows: "ZnT8," "type 1 diabetes," "latent autoimmune diabetes in adults," "type 2 diabetes," "islet autoantibodies
," "zinc supplement," "T cells," "[sz] cell," "immune therapy." We also searched the reference lists of selected articles.