In High German dialects, there is an isogloss
assumed to run from north to south, approximately along the political border of Baden-Wurttemberg and Bavaria.
Following this preliminary investigation, 1 would argue that Margaret's use of Scots, or, probably more accurately, varied incorporation of Scots features in her writing system (and probably her speech) would have reflected her experience not just as any individual moving across dialectal boundaries, but specifically as a late medieval/early modern queen writing, and sometimes moving physically across what is today the most significant isogloss
in Britain (see e.g.
In the case of isogloss
mapping in particular, lines are drawn based on researchers' decisions about the location of observed data points (Kirk, Sanderson, and Widdowson 1985; Ormeling 1992).
In Central Franconian, there is a distinctive opposition between a falling tone 1 and a stretched tone 2 that seems to be reversed in a strip of land along the southeastern border, which is formed by the "thick bundle of isoglosses
separating Central Franconian from Rhine Franconian, the most characteristic one being the isogloss
between the pronoun dat 'that' to the northwest and das to the southeast" (de Vaan 1999: 41).
Post-vocalic /r/ is a sociolinguistic variable in New York City, in England it defines basically a large-scale dialect isogloss
, and in many parts of the American Midwest it shows little variation of any sort.
It would appear that whatever the explicit ideology, lines are not clearly drawn between "Judaism" and "Christianity," but at least one highly significant isogloss
(that is, highly significant for the Rabbis, for whom it marks the difference between orthodox and heretic, just as it does for Justin and the Pseudo-Clementines); the line is between Jew and Jew, between Christian and Christian, thus marking a site of overlap and ambiguity between the two "religions" that the texts are at pains to construct.
But however interesting the isogloss
is to the historian of languages, it gives only limited help to the student of Greek realities.
Johnson and Fine (1985) studied gender differences in the uses and perceptions of obscenity, reporting that their respondents saw this type of language as "an isogloss
marking the speech communities of males and females" (p.
de-mi-pit-uma "I would turn," Chris, har vaqt ke baqal xuna masea, un tuti dakun-rd mapasa (19) "whenever the grocer went home, the parrot would look after the store." This past imperfective marker, apparently originating in Persian (20) and passed on to the Semnan area, marks a significant isogloss
between Sahmirzadi and Mazandarani.
Wiik and Lehiste, who have studied the matter, conclude on this isogloss
(1968 : 573-574): "In the type of Finnish that does not use a half-long vowel, quantity appears to function primarily on a segmental level.
Unlike what we observe in the Slavic and Kartvelian language families, finally, Ossetic is the only Iranic language hating developed this kind of derivational-like grammatical category (Edel'man 2002: 127); hence, Abaev [1965/1995: 343-354] and Edel'man [2002: 127] consider the aspectual value of preverbs, together with the Genitive-Accusative case marking on direct objects, to be a very old grammatical isogloss
shared by Ossetic and Russian, which goes back to early contacts between Scythian and Eastern Slavs (7).