The maternal details like demographic profile, anaemia, bacterial vaginosis, gestational hypertension, previous history of preterm delivery, urinary tract infection, Rh isoimmunization
, multiple pregnancy, heart disease, congenital malformation of uterus, first trimester bleeding, medical complications during pregnancy, antepartum haemorrhage, definite cause of preterm labour if any, treatment profile, intranatal care and delivery outcome was collected.
Fetal diagnostic imaging has also proved beneficial in fetal prenatal diagnosis including amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) for fetal chromosomal karyotyping and for intrauterine fetal transfusion in instances of fetal isoimmunization
. These procedures enabled by ultrasound could also result in a decrease in the risk of fetal death especially for potentially lethal conditions and for severe fetal isoimmunization
(ie, Rh disease).
It is generally considered to be contraindicated in a multiple pregnancy (except after delivery of the first twin), in cases of rhesus isoimmunization
, vaginal bleeding which is current or recent (less than one week), abnormal electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), rupture of the membranes, or where the mother has not given informed consent for ECV.
It is therefore suggested that further research should explore the association between quality of antenatal care and risk of neonatal death using indicators such as the detection and early treatment of intrauterine growth retardation and congenital syphilis during pregnancy and Rh isoimmunization
by giving the mother immune globulin at the right time.
The use of heterologous gametes is indicated when there is a total or nearly total absence of spermatozoa or in the case of genetic disorders (when the preimplantation genetic diagnosis is not accepted), in the case of diseases transmitted from mother to daughter such as HIV, when blood groups are incompatible, or when there is RH with previous exposure (previous isoimmunization
), and in the case of single women or lesbians wanting to have children (43-45).
We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases using the keywords Rh isoimmunization
"OR" intrauterine transfusion "AND" intracranial hemorrhage "OR" brain injury "OR" brain damage.
A gravida 4 para 2 (living 1, abortion 1) woman with rhesus negative blood type was referred to us for isoimmunization
at 35 weeks gestation.
The percentages of those having male fetuses, low Apgar scores, fetal distress, MSA, preeclampsia, perinatal/neonatal mortality, gestational diabetes, Rh isoimmunization
, and abortus imminence were similar between the women with mild and severe ICP.
The pathophysiology of isoimmunization
in minor blood group incompatibility in the fetus and newborn is similar to the pathophysiology of Rh incompatibility.
is unlikely to be the cause of hemolysis in ABO-incompatible but direct antiglobulin test-negative neonates.
Riera, "Delayed hypersensitivity and lesions following isoimmunization
with modified rat male accessory glands: kinetics of induction," Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol.
The nature of the anemia when Kell antigens are present is different from the more classic scenario with anti-RhD isoimmunization