Methacrylic acid (MAA) and itaconic acid
(IA) are monomers widely used for the preparation of pH-sensitive gels designed as drug delivery devices because of their biocompatibility and easy reactivity with other functional monomers and polymers [13-17].
Utilization patterns of the 31 carbon sources in the sediments from the river sites (SC1, SC2, and SC3) were similar to each other except for 11 carbon substrates: phenylalanine (ANOVA, F = 9.6, P = 0.001), L-arginine (ANOVA, F = 4.2, P = 0.23), L-threonine (ANOVA, F = 3.7, P = 0.037), D-galacturonic acid [gamma]-lactone (ANOVA, F = 5.7, P = 0.007), D-xylose (ANOVA, F= 6.2, P = 0.005), [alpha]-ketobutyric acid (ANOVA, F= 6.1, P = 0.006), D-malic acid (ANOVA, F= 6.7, P = 0.004), itaconic acid
(ANOVA, F = 3.5, P = 0.040), [alpha]-cyclodextrin (ANOVA, F= 5.6, P = 0.008), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ANOVA, F= 7.4, P = 0.002), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (ANOVA, F = 10.8, P = 0 < 0.0001).
Katime, "5-Fluorouracil release from copolymeric hydrogels of itaconic acid
This enzyme converts cys-aconitate (derived from citrate) to itaconic acid
. One of remarkable effect observed after itaconate treatment is the reduction of the expression of cytokines IL-1[beta], IL-6, and iNOS .
Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation and Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages results in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid
levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections .
The acid is different from the chelating agent and is selected from the group consisting of glycolic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, gluconic acid, itaconic acid
, trichloroacetic acid, benzoic acid, urea hydrochloride, and combinations thereof.
Itaconix, which is based in New Hampshire, is a specialty polymer company that develops and commercialises novel polymers based on its proprietary, commercially-proven and low production cost itaconic acid
Companies involved In developing Itaconic acid
include France-based Leaf Technologies and U.S.-based Itaconix.
Likewise, a comparison of the pK of soil P-binding reactions with Ca, Fe, and Al ions versus the pK of chelation reactions of Ca, Fe, and Al ions with maleic acid and itaconic acid
would indicate whether maleic-itaconic acid copolymer could prevent the P-precipitation reactions.
The monomers used in this study, N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and itaconic acid
(IA), were obtained from Acros Organics (Belgium).
In order to enhance the biocompactibility and biodegradation, a polymer is designed from fumaric acid, 1,4-butanediol, and itaconic acid
. Itaconic acid
is a naturally occurring bioactive monomer and is also derived from citric acid.