sup],, In this study, we used job-demand-control model because we have used the questionnaire of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),[sup] which quantified job control
and job demand, allowing to determine the modified version of job strain condition.
2001) contend that job control
is a key factor in developing employees' experienced state of ownership.
Combined with the sophistication of the job control
software, it all represents a huge difference to the ROI.
is the ability to make decisions for one's own activities (Elovainio et al.
Respondents replied to VHA employee survey items using a five-point Likert-type scale (anchored at 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree except where otherwise noted) for all measures except role alignment, workload balance and job control
, which utilized a 4-point semantically anchored scale.
However, from a positive psychology point of view it would be interesting to study more positive personal aspects, such as job satisfaction (Demirtas, 2010) or job control
(Chiang, Birtch, & Kwan, 2010), that would help to neutralize the negative effects of work stress.
13) Job control
and psychological demand measures were also combined to form a measure of job strain (where psychological demands are high and job control
The job resources that are expected to be associated with work engagement in this study include job control
, whereby employees exercise greater discretion over decisions relating to their work (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
This was partly explained by higher organizational justice and job control
in the private sector (Heponiemi et al.
The aim of our study was to examine creative requirement, job control
, support from coworkers and supervisors as organizational factors and personal initiative as a personal characteristic predicting the creativity and innovation of teachers.
I always stopped by job control
before starting my rounds.
Experts from the Australian National University in Canberra said: "This study has shown that work of poor psychosocial quality, characterised by low job control
, high job demands and complexity, job insecurity and the perception of unfair pay, does not bestow the same mental health benefits as employment in jobs with high psychosocial quality.