The lack of common understood joint fire support doctrine and the parochial interpretation of fire support coordination measures caused significant problems in fire support coordination, particularly at EAC [echelons above corps].
The main focus is the integration of operations that occur between joint forces under the umbrella of "joint fire support." Joint fire support may include the lethal effects of close air support (by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft), air interdiction (AI) within component boundaries, naval surface fire support, artillery, mortars, rockets, and missiles, as well as non lethal effects such as electronic warfare.
(1.) See Joint Pub 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support
, 12 May 1998, passim.
During this culminating point of the overall exercise, the audience should have witnessed the close coordination of fire and maneuver at all echelons, joint fire support
, and combat and combat service support acting closely together against a hybrid threat.
Though great strides have been made since joint doctrine was legislated by the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, joint fire support coordination still presents a quandary.
Revisiting accepted principles of joint fire support, joint fires are weapons systems used during the employment of forces from two or more components in coordinated action to produce desired effects in support of a common objective.
(4.) Joint Pub 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support
, 12 May 1998, II-1-II-17, on-line, Internet, 16 April 2002, available from http://wwdtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_09.pdf.
Similarly, Joint Publication 3-09 Joint Fire Support
, dated 13 November 2006, defines the U.S.
(6) JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support
(Washington, DC: Department of Defense, November 13, 2006), viii.
Special Operations Forces eventually integrated joint fires in the theater air-ground system through Joint Publication 3-09, Joint Fire Support
. The Army has an extensive approach to linking organic fires (artillery, missiles, and helicopters) with Air Force close air support and interdiction using tactical air control parties attached to units down to battalion level.
As indicated in Joint Pub 3-09, Doctrine for Joint Fire Support
, land and naval commanders are authorized to control the priority, timing, and effects of fires in assigned areas.