A chronicle reckons the years from the Incarnation of our Lord, and counts the months of the years and the Kalends
, and it teaches also the deeds of kings and princes which happened in those very years, and it records the events, portents, or miracles.
67-70), [After making these remarks, the usurer Alfius, on the verge of becoming a farmer called in all his money on the Ides, wanting to lend it out on the Kalends
And this year appeared a comet on the fourteenth before the kalends
But in the western civil calendar it is New Year's Day: the successor, in the late ancient and medieval periods, to at least some Roman customary observances of the Kalends
Secondary but related material is covered in short chapters, for example, the Kalends
festivities, the Easter ball dance at Auxerre, the Feast of the Ass, and five celebrations that postdate the suppression of the Feast of Fools.
20 Another graffito describes a group of male participants, and even includes a date: XVII K Jul / Hermeros / cum Phile/tero * et Caphi/so hic * futu/erunt (17 days before the Kalends
of July, Hermeros with Phileteros and Caphisus fucked here, CIL IV 2192, Add.
RESTAD, CHRISTMAS IN AMERICA: A HISTORY 57 (1995) ("In pre-Christian times, Romans used evergreens, symbols of fertility and regeneration, to trim their houses at the Kalends
53) In the eleventh century, New Year festivities were condemned by Peter Damian (1007-1072), who reports that a certain priest, guilty of sexual promiscuity with another man's wife, insisted on "leading dances" as boys sang, even on the kalends
of January, when he was due to take vows as a monk.
In the Roman world the week-long festivals of Saturnalia (from December 17) and Kalends
, (from January 1) were marked by decorating buildings with evergreens, exchanging gifts December 25 became Jesus's birthday.
Claiming pagan origins for Carnival: Bacchanalia, Saturnalia, and Kalends
33) Before the Julian calendar, the year began in March "at the Kalends
of the third month following the winter solstice": Dupont, 192.