As the title of the latter suggests, tsarist exile was a form of confinement not necessarily bounded by physical constraint as such; both authors explore the system within and without the walls of katorga
and transit prisons.
Aunque es obvio que los barracones siberianos estaban poblados por gente violenta, la katorga
donde sobrevivio Dostoievski era mucho menos peligrosa e intimidante que cualquier carcel mexicana.
(7) NICHKINA, M.V.: "Revoliutsiia na podobie ispanskoi", Katorga
i ssylka, no.
For example: "Maria Kovalevskaya, daughter of the landowner Vorontsov, was sentenced in 1879 to 13 years of katorga
followed by lifelong exile in Siberia.
Adam from Katorga
Works did a great job pulling this thing together the past few years.
It published a journal, Katorga
i ssylka (Hard-Labour and Exile), containing memoirs and reminiscences.
In the poem, Pushkin addressed his friends, buried away in Siberian katorga
, and called freedom "griefs constant sister" who toiled in "dungeons, black and dreary." (36) Perhaps Drda did not intend to sneak in, with Pushkin's help, a hidden allusion to penal servitude.
(29) Faintsimmer worked as assistant director on Vsevolod Pudovkin's Konets Sankt-Peterburga [The End of St Petersburg] (1927) and Iulii Raizman's Katorga
[Exile] (1928), before going on to be Belgoskino's 'house director' throughout the 1930s.
Ulianinskii, "Ucheba na katorge," Katorga
i ssylka, no.
Nor was forced labour anything new in the Soviet Union, the system of katorga
having been introduced by the tsars as early as the 17th century.
Rozanov, "V Smolenske," Katorga
i ssylka 3/52 (1929), 157-158.
Exiles from all over the country were banished to Sakhalin, where they were subjected to forced labor (katorga
) and lived in dreadful conditions.