As the title of the latter suggests, tsarist exile was a form of confinement not necessarily bounded by physical constraint as such; both authors explore the system within and without the walls of katorga
and transit prisons.
For example: "Maria Kovalevskaya, daughter of the landowner Vorontsov, was sentenced in 1879 to 13 years of katorga
followed by lifelong exile in Siberia.
Adam from Katorga
Works did a great job pulling this thing together the past few years.
It published a journal, Katorga
i ssylka (Hard-Labour and Exile), containing memoirs and reminiscences.
In the poem, Pushkin addressed his friends, buried away in Siberian katorga
, and called freedom "griefs constant sister" who toiled in "dungeons, black and dreary." (36) Perhaps Drda did not intend to sneak in, with Pushkin's help, a hidden allusion to penal servitude.
(29) Faintsimmer worked as assistant director on Vsevolod Pudovkin's Konets Sankt-Peterburga [The End of St Petersburg] (1927) and Iulii Raizman's Katorga
[Exile] (1928), before going on to be Belgoskino's 'house director' throughout the 1930s.
Ulianinskii, "Ucheba na katorge," Katorga
i ssylka, no.
Nor was forced labour anything new in the Soviet Union, the system of katorga
having been introduced by the tsars as early as the 17th century.
Rozanov, "V Smolenske," Katorga
i ssylka 3/52 (1929), 157-158.
Exiles from all over the country were banished to Sakhalin, where they were subjected to forced labor (katorga
) and lived in dreadful conditions.