Excessive deposition of fat in adipocytes and muscles determines insulin resistance with subsequent accumulation of fat in the liver , which, in turn, increases the rate of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis
that can promote lipid peroxidation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hepatocytes [10, 11].
Strata spinosum and granulosum contribute to most metabolic functions of tissues (i.e ketogenesis
) and they are the reservoir of cells with the highest participation in energetic metabolism of the animal (7).
Increased liver enzymes level under insulin deficiency has been related with increased gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis
during diabetes (Nabi et al.
It is well known that glucose metabolism has a close association with hepatic ketogenesis
and lipid metabolism in liver where glucose metabolism is integrated with ketone bodies nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) metabolism (Huntington et al.
L-Carnitine ((R)-3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1propaminium hydroxide inner salt, Figure 1(a)) is a vitaminlike amino acid derivative, which is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism as acyltransferase cofactor and in energy production processes, such as interconversion in the mechanisms of regulation of ketogenesis
Hypocaloric diets and ketogenesis
in the management of obese gestational diabetic women.
The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis
, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.
The second factor is ketogenesis
triggered by the very low-calorie diet used for faster weight loss.
The normal buffering system of bicarbonate is overwhelmed by ketogenesis
; thus, a depletion of bicarbonate occurs.
It is well understood that dietary restriction in the form of calorie or carbohydrate deprivation is conducive to ketogenesis
and serum ketone elevation .
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase modulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and radio-HPLC evidence for low ketogenesis
in neonatal pigs.
Responses to leptin in short-term fasting and refeeding in humans: a link with ketogenesis
but not ketones themselves.