Remember that pads that measure ketones are most sensitive to acetoacetic acid, have varying sensitivity to acetone, and generally do not react at all with [Beta]-hydroxybutyric acid.[3,4] In typical human diabetic ketonuria
, 78% is [Beta]-hydroxybutyric acid, 20% is acetoacetic acid, and 2% is acetone. Thus, when assessing diabetic ketosis, consider alternative testing to accurately quantitate ketones.
Persons with diabetes should understand the importance of contacting their health-care providers immediately if their blood glucose level remains higher than 240 mg/dL, ketonuria
develops, or symptoms of illness persist.
She also admitted to have repeated ketonuria
at 2+~3+ during her obstetric follow-up.
The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of type 2 DM (age > 30 years at onset of diabetes, no previous episodes of ketoacidosis or documented ketonuria
The constellation of elevated urine orotic acid, low citrulline, persistent hyperammonemia with normal liver function, ketonuria
, feeding difficulty, and neurologic changes were so highly suspicious of OTC deficiency; a confirmation of diagnosis by means of liver biopsy was not performed.
This study adopted the diagnostic criteria for T2DM of the World Health Organization issued in 1999.[sup] Type 1 diabetes mellitus was defined as patients with a medical history of acute ketoacidosis when they were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, with a large amount of ketonuria
, and required persistent insulin therapy within the 1[sup]st year after diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
Ketosis (ketonemia and ketonuria
) is a metabolic disorder in dairy animals caused by impaired metabolism of carbohydrate and volatile fatty acids leading to excessive production of ketone bodies: Acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid and their decarboxylation products such as acetone and isopropanol (Radostits et al., 2000).
Most commonly the patients had wide anion gap metabolic acidosis and ketonuria
. Dietary therapy has to be initiated within 2 weeks of birth to achieve normal intellect and it should be a long term mode of treatment.
Children with type 1 diabetes who had a blood glucose level higher than 300 mg/dl at the time of application blood pH lower than 7.30 and HCO lower than 315 mEq/L were diagnosed with ketonuria
and glycosuria and those with blood ketone level higher than 3.5 mmol/L were defined as having diabetic ketoacidosis.
Although some studies have demonstrated benefit in reducing macrosomia in the offspring (38), others have suggested risk of causing ketonemia and ketonuria
(39) in the mothers, which may be associated with lower mental and motor function of the offspring at the ages of 3 and 7 years (40, 41).
The criteria used to diagnose DKA in the included patients were: Hyperglycemia [greater than or equal to] 250 mg/dl, pH<7.3, and/or serum bicarbonate [less than or equal to] 18 mmol/l and the presence of ketonuria
(2+ or more).
The problem presents across a broad spectrum of severity, with the most severe form being hyperemesis gravidarum, a condition characterized by persistent vomiting, weight loss greater than 5%, ketonuria
, electrolyte abnormalities, hypokalemia, and dehydration; this condition usually results in the need for hospitalization, treatment with intravenous fluids, and even intravenous feeding.