We must not forget the history of the great Kyrgyz Khanate
in 1170, which strength was in unity of all ethnic groups.
No surprise there, as the Crimean Khanate
had become a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in the year 1475 and Islam had been adopted as the official religion for the Tatars in the 14th century, too.
This is a very minor point of detail, but Burbank and Cooper go on in the next paragraph to reveal a profound misunderstanding both of the political structures of Central Asia before the conquest and the policies pursued there by the Russians afterward when they write, "The emirate of Bukhara and the khanate
of Khiva became 'protectorates,' while Turkestan--where there was no khanate
to subordinate--was put under the administration of a military governor-general.
A big shortcoming of the Commission is that the report did not name the main reason of the conflict, which originates from the time of Kokand Khanate
when the Kyrgyz had to seek job opportunities from Uzbeks and other ethnic groups.
When the Crimean Khanate
was formally annexed by Czarist Russia in 1783, hundreds of thousands of Crimean Tartars and Nogai people were expelled from the region, heading for the Ottoman state instead.
Ocherki istorii (The Khanate
of Kasimov [1445-1552]: Essays in History).
The leader of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambaev supported his party member Bakyt Beshimov who said that the incumbent authorities are building Kokand Khanate
instead of building a democratic society in his interview for De Facto newspaper on Thursday.
Keenan's first published forays into source criticism appeared in the late 1960s, with article-length considerations of both the Kazanskaia istoriia (History of Kazan'), often invoked to interpret relations between Muscovy and the khanate
of Kazan', and the edict of Akhmad Khan to Ivan III, an important source for interpreting the "stand on the Ugra" in 1480 as signifying the end of the "Mongol Yoke.
45) The khanate
of Kokand emerges in Rakhimov's work and Gerasimova's reaction as a crude proxy for contemporary Uzbekistan.
He commissioned the encyclopedia of Russian Orthodox culture known as the Velikie mind chetii; he presided over the recognition of more Russian saints than had graced the calendar since Vladimir's baptism of Rus'; he choreographed the ceremonies by which Ivan was crowned Orthodox tsar and celebrated as protector of the faithful after his conquest of the khanate
of Kazan; he personally participated in the painting of icons and presided over the construction of the Church of the Intercession, works that glorified Moscow as the "New Jerusalem"; and he fiercely defended this edifice against what he took to be heretical doubters.
In 19th-century Russian historiography and up until the 1930s, the prevailing view explained the ethnogenesis of the Kazakhs as having crystallized with the development of a 15th-century khanate
out of the wreckage of the Golden Horde.
He is also primarily concerned with Russia and the West, though he does deal, at some stages, with the various titles in use between Muscovite Russia and the successor states of the Mongol Hordes, notably the khanate
of Crimea, and between Russia and the Ottoman empire.