Methyl ester quantity, kinematic viscosity
, density, freezing point of methyl ester and flash point of methyl ester were measured in the experiments.
Then, for improvement of fuel properties, they were mixed with diesel in different ratios (B25, B50 and B75) and their properties such as flash point, cloud point, pour point, kinematic viscosity
and density were analyzed according to international standards, Esmayeeli said.
The properties of deodorizer distillate oil and biodiesel were determined by standard test methods as follows; Fatty acid profile AOAC (2000); Density ASTM D 1298; Kinematic viscosity
ASTM D 445; Calorific value ASTM D 5865; Flash point ASTM D93; Cloud point ASTM D2500; Pour point ASTM D90; Cetane number ASTM D613; Acid value ASTM D664; Iodine value EN 14111; Copper strip corrosion (ASTM D130); Biodiesel Rancimet EN 14112 and Ester content EN 14103.
Physical properties of each FAME including cetane number, Kinematic viscosity
, Density and Higher heating value were calculated from empirical equations :
It can be seen that for the two refrigerants having small kinematic viscosity
, Fluorinert A and Silicone Oil A, the cooling performance rapidly decreased as the distance from the appropriate dripping position increased.
Physicochemical properties as acid value, kinematic viscosity
and specific gravity at 20 and 40 [degrees]C, iodine value and free glycerin were determined.
Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity
, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards.
The upgraded PNS/DOE QS 013:2017: CME-blended industrial diesel oil specifications include introduction of cetane number or derived cetane number as new property, removal of distillation property, reduction in the limit of carbon residue, increase the limits of density, flash point and kinematic viscosity
and updating of test method.
Surprisingly, kinematic viscosity
values for water vary by a factor of 5 between 40 F and 200 F.
A matter is shown that, the sulfur content in fossil fuel is inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity
, thus resulting in reducing the amount of oil supplied to the engine and affecting the engine performance.
The viscosity was evaluated with the Ford Cup-type viscometer Quimis brand model Q 280, which analyzes the kinematic viscosity
expressed in centiStoke (cSt) by using orifice 2 for all concentrations, according to Brazilian standard NBR 584920.
Physicochemical properties of cantaloupe seed oil: Various physiochemical properties of the extracted oil were examined including density, kinematic viscosity
, saponification number, free fatty acid (FFA) value and iodine value using the standard AOCS methods(2002).