Inflammation itself arises from myriad etiologic pathways, with multiple inflammatory mediators potentially involved, including histamines, cytokines, eicosanoids (for example, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes), complement cascade components, kinins
, fibrinopeptide enzymes, nuclear factor-kappa B, and free radicals.
The data with aprotinin elsewhere fully support for the elevation of endogenous kinins
by BT venom.
and cytokines in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuropsychiatric lupus.
and cytokines in plasma and cerebrospinalfluid of patients with neuropsychiatric lupus.
20] Apart from the described clinical pathophysiology, the underlying cause to the symptoms are mediated by an elaborate confluence of multiple cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1[beta]), TNF-[alpha], and IL-6; prostaglandins, kinins
, acute phase proteins, and various proteins of the complement system like C5a which help shaping the immune response in its totality.
have functions such as the provision of cardiovascular balance and the formation of an inflammatory response (2).
Cathepsin K targets kinins
that are involved in bone resorption, but it is expressed in other tissues as well, and it may target other classes of kinins
The first phase is mediated through release of histamine, serotonin and kinins
, whereas the second phase is related to the release of prostaglandin-like substances which peak at 3 hours.
The inflammatory pain results from activation of resident cells such as mast cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, and the release of inflammatory mediators such as kinins
, amines, prostanoids, growth factors and cytokines.
Increase in kinins
on post-exercise hypotension in normotensive and hypertensive volunteers.
It is speculated that the pain is due to formation of kinins
, including bradykinin.
that derived from KNG involved in cell proliferation, leukocyte activation, cell migration, endothelial cell activation, and nociception.