It is considered to be biphasic, the primary acute phase (0-2 h) is correlated with the release of histamine, serotonin, kinins
and some mediators.
These substances (histamine, kinins
, potassium, and prostaglandins) stimulate the nociceptors at the related area and lead to local sensitivity.
In 16 chapters on basic mechanisms that have clinical implications, international scientists discuss the related renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) which plays a critical role in hypertension, failing heart tissue, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes; the role of newly discovered factors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE-2; and the role of kinins
in, and effect of salt intake on, the anti-hypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors.
As the authors note, evidence exists suggesting that cold symptoms might be related to inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and kinins
, which are blocked by NSAIDs, rather than to direct viral cytopathic effects.
These include adrenergic monoamines, cortisols, insulin, ACTH, and kinins
These include kinins
like PKC and tyrosine kinase, TNF, NF-kappa B, cyclic D, protein API, STAT family agents, etc.
Radiotherapy helps by reducing oedema, decreasing inflammation and production of pain-producing kinins
, reducing the size of the tumour and slowing progression.
On pharmacological grounds, the occurrence of localized angioedema of the pancreas has been proposed as a biologic basis for this reaction as a result of interference with the metabolism of kinins
by ACE inhibitors.
Atkinson found that complement, kinins
, prostaglandin, coagulation factors, histamine and serotonin are all normal in patients with SCLS (7).
Toxin inhalation increased airway kinins
, and the response to inhaled toxin was enhanced after allergen challenge.
NEPs are abundant in kidney brush border membranes, cardiac myocytes, and endothelial cells and can degrade other circulating peptides, such as kinins
, enkephalins, and neurotensins.