(iv) Minimize the product kissing number "[[tau].sub.p]" for the L-product distance i.e.
Also, it is required that the kissing number be kept low, which is nothing but the number of points in the rotated constellation at that minimal product distance.
The limitation in  has been that the value of the product kissing number '[[tau].sub.p]' as verified is much larger which is limiting factor to improve the performance by simply increasing the diversity.
2 The kissing number is plotted in this case as shown in Fig.
The minimum product distance, the kissing number and the coding gain are plotted as a function of [lambda] in Fig.4, Fig.5 & Fig.6, to find the optimum point.
It has been verified that product kissing number '[[tau].sub.P]' which is a critical design parameter is equal to 1 for relevant '[dp.sub.min]' value.
When it comes to three-dimensional oranges, the kissing number is 12.
DESIGN OF FOUR In dimension two, the solutions to the kissing number and sphere-packing problems are easy to spot.
That means the kissing number in dimension four is at least 24.
After 18 months of nonstop work, he found a clever way to modify an inequality arising from Delsarte's method to prove that the kissing number indeed is 24.
In the late 1970s, mathematicians used Delsarte's methods to figure out the kissing numbers in dimensions 8 and 24.