He scripted films, and worked intensively in the "Communist Lighthouse" kolkhoz
(collective farm) at the time of the First Five Year Plan (1928-32).
They included the treatment of the peasantry --one of Bianco's scholarly specialities -who were kept in a state of backwardness and poverty, and the mismanagement of agricultural production, with poorly conceived collectivisation (kolkhoz
in the Soviet Union, communes in China) contributing to the great famines of 1931-33 in the Soviet Union and 1958-62 in China.
These were kolkhoz
and sovkhoz names, many of which were commemorative.
Some had thrived on the kolkhoz
; some left the kolkhoz
In 1932, during the Ukrainian famine, Joseph Stalin, a fence builder par excellence, introduced the "Law of Three Spikelets," which made taking a handful of grain from a kolkhoz
a crime punishable by firing squad.
Sultan Ibraimov started working in the kolkhoz
in 1943, then he was tractor driver.
With this issue I approached the chairman of the kolkhoz
Ormanbekov, who, instead of helping me, verbally abused me.
There, her father began work in a Kolkhoz
, or collective farm, but he was sentenced to a year in prison for "subversion" after an argument with the leader of the collective.
In Ivanovka, where the collective-public labor system operates earlier, the kolkhoz
(collective farm), named after Nikitin, has been preserved for many years.
Slavoj Zizek cites a striking example from Sergei Eisenstein, who once wrote that the ecstasy of a Christian knight in the presence of the Holy Grail and that of a kolkhoz
farmer before a new milking machine are indistinguishable: while the outward objective form radically changes the enjoyment remains the same (2008, 62).
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Caption: Opposite page: Photograph from Sergei Tret'iakov's Vyzov: kolkhoznye ocherki (The Summons: Sketches from the Kolkhoz
) (Moscow: Federatsiia, 1930).