He emphasizes the influence of ideologies that support or reject the existence of the welfare state, such as neoliberalism, laborism
, social democracy, and social investment; the impacts of local interest and lobby groups; and the impacts of economic globalization and global social policy actors and policy trends on welfare policy debates.
Draut reminds us time and again that a solidarity is painstakingly being built, but from a movement of the new working class that is "primarily, but not entirely, of people of color and immigrants." It has the support of what I have called the new "laborism
" of mostly white, college-educated union staffers and other urban, professional leftists, but less so of the white working class itself.
In the current era, with declining coverage and power of trade unions across most capitalist nations and with neoliberalism rampant, the prospects for either laborism
or social democracy seem so much more elusive.
The Brisbane Worker featured many editorials and opinion pieces calling for conscription of wealth or dual conscription, or both, justifying such calls in the name of Laborism
235; Rick Kuhn, 'Laborism
and foreign policy: The case of the Vietnam war', in From Evatt to Evans: The Labor tradition in foreign policy, ed.
That new formation, Palmer notes, "tended to dismiss allusions to the particularities of American experience as little more than centrist evasion of revolutionary commitment" (99) and opposed those who, "[i]n the face of revolution's call," were "'irresolute, [prone to] vacillate, temporize, and remain stupid.'" (99) These self-appointed vanguards of American communism denounced trade unions as "'the arch enemy of the militant proletariat'" and rejected "all forms of laborism
" and "'moderate petty bourgeois socialism.'" (115) Not exactly in tune with American realities, they urged striking railroad workers in 1920 to engage in "armed struggle as a precondition for proletarian victory." (116) Few, needless to say, heeded that call.
Massey, 'A century of Laborism
and the state, 1891-1993: an historical interpretation', ibid., pp.
(44.) Denise Dresser, Neo-populist Solutions to Neo-liberal Problems: Mexico's National Solidarity Program (San Diego: Center for US-Mexican Studies, 1991); Steven Levitsky, From Laborism
to Liberalism: Institutionalization and Labor-Based Party Adaptation in Argentina (1983-1997) (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1999).
But I cannot agree with him that the `radical elements' of the "Culture and Society tradition": "tradition, community, organicism, growth, wholeness, continuity, and so on--were interlocked with the equally corporatist, evolutionary discourse of Laborism
, so that the organicism of one language reproduced and elaborated the organicism of the other" (25).
(60.) Steven Levitsky, "From Laborism
to Liberalism: Institutionalization and Labor-Based Party Adaptation in Argentina (1983-1997)" (Ph.D.
As a newspaper proprietor he had business interests to defend against Labor's socialist objective, but, as his business career blossomed, he retained his belief that liberalism and laborism
shared much common ground and that governments had a moral duty to manage economic activity for the material advantage of both capital and labour
Yet neither it is laborism
, at least not in its postwar or Whitlamist senses (i.e., along the lines of European social democracy).