The upper and lower pipes unite to form a bigger pipe which drains into a pouch or receptacle called lacrimal sac
. From the lower part of sac another bigger pipe arises which channels the excess tears into the nose.
Chips of lacrimal bone is removed using side knife, then frontal process of maxilla is punched out using Kerrison's bone punch, lacrimal sac
is fully exposed, for the exposure of upper of sac is sometimes drilling is required.
Removal of the frontal process of the maxilla uncovered the antero-inferior portion of the lacrimal sac
. At this juncture diamond burr was used to remove the rest of the bone up to the superior mucosal incision.
In the DCR it is created a direct communication between the lacrimal sac
in the nasal cavity through surgical osteotomy in the LF in the upper third of the NLD (Welham & Wulc, 1987).
Imaging studies show infiltrative lesions in ocular adnexal tissues such as the lacrimal glands, (12-14) extraocular muscles, (11,12) infraorbital nerves, (12) optic nerve sheath, (12) lacrimal sac
, (12) and even cavernous sinus or the intracranial extension.
The patients' findings, ocular surface photographs, histopathologic slides, and any possible extension of melanoma into surrounding tissues such as the eyelid, lacrimal sac
, or orbit were retrospectively analysed.
Following punctum dilation, probing was performed with a Bowman probe (Probe Lachrymal BOWMAN 04-05, Inami, Tokyo, Japan) to confirm the absence of resistance in the lacrimal sac
and the nasolacrimal duct (NLD).
Hammon et al., "Evaluation for high-risk HPV in squamous cell carcinomas and precursor lesions arising in the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac
," The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol.
Mucoceles are known as "mucus filled cavities" usually present in the oral cavity, lacrimal sac
, and paranasal sinuses .
Dacryocystitis is inflammation of lacrimal sac
and can occur due to trauma and/or infection, leading to blockage of duct system (Slatter, 2003).
Bilateral lesions are infrequent (about 10%); other sites are rarely affected (nasopharynx, lacrimal sac
, eustachian tube, and middle ear).