The new conservative educational reforms (impositions) disturbed many secular Turkish citizens as they regarded these developments as a threat to secularism (hereafter the term "laicism
" is used interchangeably) in Turkey after 2005.
There is a need to bring the Christian message once again to civilizations and cultures that were once Christian but have now lost the Christian spirit out of years and decades of neglect-where the words of Christ were once heard, but not put into practice, thereby becoming easy prey to the winds and tempest of laicism
, secularization and materialism.
The state elite endorsed a rigid secularism, resembling the French model of laicism
, and radically limited the scope of religion in the public sphere.
As a result, preference for major State intervention (Rodriguez Kauth, 2001), along with the contemporary emphasis on collectivism, multiculturalism, environmentalism, laicism
, economic nationalism, and anti-globalization postures are idiosyncratic characteristics of the left.
Marchand-Taillade is a regional champion of the French idea of secularism, laicism
, who has published on the dangers of declining laicism
The state promoted a Turkish national identity that it imposed on the economy, media, and culture, along with a particular mode of secularism called laicism
, which aimed at eradicating Islam--a threat to the country's new Western identity--from public life.
Keywords: University of Navarra, Second Vatican Council, Postconciliar Theology, Secularly, Laicism
Basically, Berkes tries to explain the modernization process of Turkey with regards to the phenomena of 'secularism' and 'laicism
.' To him, secularism is "on the idea of worldliness," while laicism
"emphasizes the distinction of the laity from the clergy" (5).
He ultimately thinks that "laicism
, which comes out of the Enlightenment critique of religion, is associated with attempts to force religion out of politics" (Hurd, 2008: 23).
Thus, despite his abolition of caliphate (1924), despite his opting for laicism
and wholesale Westernization, despite his turning his back on the Muslim East, Kemal was still hailed as Ghazi and Saiful Islam ("The Sword of Islam"), and he retained the "Ghazi" title throughout his life, prizing it as a trophy.
You have to combat ideas with ideas, with a philosophy of life, with a rethinking of democracy, with new ideas about laicism
and with a good plan of how to integrate Muslim communities into European societies.