compounds have been extensively used as luminescent chemosensors for medical diagnostics and optical cell imaging, contrast reagents for magnetic resonance imaging, shift reagents for NMR spectroscopy, as well as for applications in fundamental and applied sciences such as organic synthesis, bioorganic chemistry, and catalysis.
Seitz, "Breakdown of the energy gap law in molecular lanthanoid
luminescence: the smallest energy gap is not universally relevant for nonradiative deactivation," Inorganic Chemistry, vol.
Coronado et al., "Lanthanoid
single-ion magnets based on polyoxometalates with a 5-fold symmetry: the series [[Ln[P.sub.5][W.sub.30][O.sub.110]].sup.12-]([Ln.sup.3+] = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb)," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
The rare earth elements (REEs), defined as scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), and fifteen lanthanoid
elements from La (lanthanum) to Lu (lutetium) with atomic numbers from 57 to 71 in the periodic table, are increasingly used in new technologies related to medical scans, energy (batteries, wind turbines), electronics (cell phones, laptops) and transportation (hybrid cars) because they are malleable, reactive, magnetic and refractive, though some have high market prices, particularly Sc.
According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, rare earth metals (or elements) are the 15 lanthanoid
elements with atomic numbers of 57 through 71, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Key statement: The present invention provides a modified conjugated diene polymer that is prepared by polymerization of a conjugated diene compound using a catalyst containing a lanthanoid
rare earth element compound in an organic solvent and then modifying the resulting polymer having an active organic metal site with a modifier, wherein the modification efficiency is not less than 15% and the cis-1,4 bond content in the conjugated diene moiety measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy satisfies the relationship (I):
2 show increasing ionic potential from left to right, with K, Na, Rb, Ba, and Sr representing the large ion lithophile elements (LILE: Z/r < 2), and La-Yb the mostly trivalent lanthanoid
(rare earth) elements (which can be grouped with Y which behaves like Yb).
The object of the present work is to investigate the synergistic solvent extraction of the metals of the lanthanoid
series (La, Nd, Eu, Ho, and Lu) with a mixture of the chelating extractant 1-(2-thienyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-butanedione (HTTA) or 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-l-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-on (HP) and PAR in CH[Cl.sub.3] and to determine the possibilities for the separation of the metals.
(Ln) ions have spectrally narrow emission, even in solution, and nearly all of the lanthanoids
exhibit photoluminescent properties [11-17].
Lezhnina, "Spectroscopic properties of lanthanoid
benzene carboxylates in the solid state: part 1," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol.