If the temperature decrease with* height is unusually strong, this is a high lapse rate
, sometimes called a "steep lapse rate
" by meteorologists.
Several studies have been undertaken to contrast lapse rates
between ordinary and unit-linked life insurance and annuity products.
5a, inset) with a lapse rate
of 9.6[degrees]C [km.sup.-1].
While the wind speed data recorded at DGA suggest that wind does not have an impact on lapse rate
, we cannot exclude the possibility that there could be microscale advection occurring along the glacier--particularly in those short periods when lapse rates
become very high for a few minutes.
Kushnir (2000), Lapse Rate
, Moisture, Clouds and Thuderstorms, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Columbia University [Online], available: http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/index.html
The interior pressure line (the interior lapse rate
"line") moves laterally--horizontally shifts to the left from Figure 2 to Figure 3.
The true drivers of premium increases--or more accurately, why older blocks of long-term care insurance policies are generating such losses as cumulative premiums exceed cumulative claims--is that long-term care insurance has had surprisingly low lapse rates
, and it has been difficult for insurance companies to generate much investment return on their premiums collected in the current interest rate environment.
As this article's main text discusses, the standard lapse rate
is two degrees Centigrade (about 4.5 deg.
Mean air temperature lapse rates
between 15 and 1320 m asl vary at both daily and monthly scales (0.015-0.096[degrees]C [km.sup.-1]); thus, calculation of lapse rates
across the ice cap requires knowledge of local meteorological conditions (Holmgren, 1971a).
Of special interest in the area of lapse rate
analysis is the role of the financial stress position of the insurer, and whether and in what ways stress considerations may influence policyholder lapsation/persistence.
The court noted a valid dispute over Capital's adjustment for goodwill, but rejected as erroneous the Tax Court's conclusion that Capital failed to establish a "lapse rate
" for its contracts (i.e., the probability that each group's contract would lapse in any given year).
High [E.sub.p] rates at high elevations are expected (1) in mountains of the dry tropics with low cloudiness and low rainfall but high radiation and, (2) in small oceanic mountain ranges with a strong advection of moist air and, thus, a reduced temperature lapse rate
on the slope.