1 = Head of humerus (Caput humerus), 2 = Neck of humerus (Collum humeri), 3 = Major tubercle (Tuberculum majus), 4 = Supracondylar crest (Crista supracondylaris lateralis), 5 = Olecranon fossa (Fossa olecrani), 6 = Lateral epicondyle
(Epicondylus laterialis), 7 = Medial epicondyle (Epicondylus medilaris), 8 = Medial condyle (Condylus medialis) and 9 = Trochlea (Trochlea humeri).
(5-7) Though special imaging is rarely ordered for cases of LE, the most common radiographic finding is calcification along the lateral epicondyle
within the common extensor tendon.
Enthesopathy at the origin of the wrist and finger extensors presents with pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle
exacerbated by resisted wrist extension (tennis elbow).
We assessed severity of average pain during the day and pain under strain (visual analog scale (VAS); 0: no pain - 100 mm: maximum pain); local tenderness of the lateral epicondyle
after firm pressure was applied to the painful area (0-3 point scale: absent, mild, moderate, severe) (10); pain on resisted extension of middle finger and wrist with the arm extended (0-3 point scale: absent, mild, moderate, severe); pain-free grip strength in the affected arm (average of two readings with a Jamar hand-held dynamometer-Sammons Preston, AbilityOne, US) in each patient (11).
The extensor muscle group of the forearm is weaker than the flexor group, which puts a lot of stress on the insertion of the extensor muscles--that is, the lateral epicondyle
. For this reason, I've been advocating exercises to strengthen the extensor muscles as a more long-term "cure" for lateral epicondylitis.
The radial nerve courses over the lateral epicondyle
. It can be anesthetized by inserting a needle approximately 2 cm lateral to the aforementioned intersection (between the intercondylar line and biceps tendon), and advancing the needle until bone is encountered.
One known imaging pitfall is the pseudodefect at the junction of the capitellum and lateral epicondyle
, which is actually a normal osseous groove.
The procedure appears to be a safe and effective treatment for the most common cause of tennis elbow: tendinopathy of the common extensor tendon at its origin on the lateral epicondyle
, he said at a national sports medicine meeting.
The course of PACN is clinically important due to its close proximity to the lateral epicondyle
(LE) of the humerus.
* Previous history of trauma or surgery in the region of the lateral epicondyle
and common extensor origin.
In fact, the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is separated entirely from the posterolateral aspect of the joint capsule by the tendon of the popliteus muscle as it descends from the lateral epicondyle
of the femur.
The olecranon process, the radial head, which is 3 cm to 4 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle
, can be identified on pronation and supination.