law of thermodynamics


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law of thermodynamics

n.
See chart at thermodynamics.

law of thermodynamics

n
1. (General Physics) any of three principles governing the relationships between different forms of energy. The first law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy) states that the change in the internal energy of a system is equal to the sum of the heat added to the system and the work done on it. The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot be transferred from a colder to a hotter body within a system without net changes occurring in other bodies within that system; in any irreversible process, entropy always increases. The third law of thermodynamics (Nernst heat theorem) states that it is impossible to reduce the temperature of a system to absolute zero in a finite number of steps
2. (General Physics) Also called: zeroth law of thermodynamics the principle that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body then the first two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.law of thermodynamics - (physics) a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system
law of nature, law - a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature; "the laws of thermodynamics"
second law of thermodynamics - a law stating that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature; any spontaneous process results in an increase of entropy
third law of thermodynamics - law stating that the entropy of a substance approaches zero as its temperature approaches absolute zero
zeroth law of thermodynamics - the law that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body then the first two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other
natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"
conservation of energy, first law of thermodynamics, law of conservation of energy - the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
References in periodicals archive ?
Applying the first law of thermodynamics on the event horizon and using the usual entropy-area relation, we have derived the Friedmann equations the same as the ones obtained via other approaches.
The driving force for reaching this thermal equilibrium is contained in the 2nd law of thermodynamics. This law states that heat must always move from hotter to colder regions in an irreversible manner.
Any comparison between the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the sacred sphere of literature was just "a cheap journalistic infelicity," Leavis said.
The first law of thermodynamics (that is, the law of conservation of energy-see 1847) is an essentially optimistic law.
Cai and Kim [18] showed that Einstein field equations can be rewritten in the form of first law of thermodynamics for isotropic and homogeneous universe with any spatial curvature parameter.
He covers a short history of the Second Law of Thermodynamics; probability theory, information theory, and all the rest; playing with real dice; playing with simplified dice to gain a preliminary grasp of the Second Law; experiencing the Second Law with all five senses; grasping it with common sense; translating from the dice-world to the real world; and reflections on the status of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as a law of physics.
His topics include important concepts and mathematical methods, thermal properties of pure substances and some applications, the second law of thermodynamics and entropy, equations of state, chemical equilibria, and solutions.
Yet it wouldn't violate the second law of thermodynamics because the crystal would be in its lowest energy state; no useful energy could be extracted from it.
They cover the fundamental concepts: heat, work, internal energy, enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics; thermochemistry; entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics; chemical equilibrium; the properties of real gases; phase diagrams and the relative stability of solids, liquids and gases; ideal and real solutions; electrochemical cells, batteries and fuel cells; probability; the Boltzmann distribution; ensemble and molecular partition functions; statistical thermodynamics; the kinetic theory of gases; transport phenomena; elementary chemical kinetics; and complex reaction mechanisms.
The first meaning of entropy for Smithson is that described by the second law of thermodynamics, which holds that it is the nature of matter to break down, to come to a state of rest.
In the same way, as Maxwell pointed out, gases can defy the second law of thermodynamics if all the molecules happen to move in the same direction, or all the faster molecules gain still more speed from the slower ones--but the chance of that happening is so small that in the entire lifetime of the Universe, it is not likely to have happened in any cubic centimeter of it.
Energy-based variables are insufficient for this combination; we need to incorporate the second law of thermodynamics. The term thermo-economic analysis indicates that this methodology combines a second-law (exergy) analysis with an economic one; both are conducted at the system component level.