Now, morality is the condition under which a rational being can be an end in itself, since only through this is it possible to be a lawgiving
member in the kingdom of ends.
Commenting on the Bible's unique mixture of the narrative and the normative, of storytelling and lawgiving
, he cites the following verse to illustrate how legal texts take their justification from historical narratives: "You shall not oppress a stranger; you know the heart of a stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt" (23:9).
Among his topics are reason's lawgiving
and obligatory ends in the metaphysics of morals, the principle of self-love and material practical principles in the Critique of Practical Reason, moral worth and motivation in his criticism of sentimentalist ethics, Hutcheson and Rousseau in the development of his doctrine of morals, and sentimentalist ethics and natural law.
On the other hand, Kant also says that while the moral law is, unlike freedom, given (gegeben) through the fact of reason, the latter "is not an empirical fact but the sole fact of pure reason [es kein empirisches, sondem das einzige Factum der reinen Vernunft sei] which, by it, announces itself as originally lawgiving
[die sich dadurch als ursprunglich gesetzgebend ...
Press 1991) (1797) (arguing that moral duties cannot be externally prescribed: all ethical lawgiving
must be internal in nature) [hereinafter MORALS], and IMMANUEL KANT, GROUNDING FOR THE METAPHYSICS OF MORALS 40 (Hackett Classics 1981) (1785) (referring to "the dignity of a rational being who obeys no law except what he at the same time enacts himself') (emphasis added) [hereinafter Grounding],
(18) Kant's derivation of the state's lawgiving
authority [Gewalt] from the united will of all the people [6: 313], and related identification of the "essence" of citizenship with lawgiving
[6: 314], makes that distinction all the more puzzling.
Ethics of Tragic Heroism: Moral Autonomy as Lawgiving
Rebellion in Kant, Hegel and Kafka.
(Rousseau saw himself in that role and actually offered his assistance in revolutionary lawgiving
to Poland and Corsica.)
A monarchy is unaccountable to every person bound by its lawgiving
, while an aristocracy is unaccountable to the many.
Clearly Gen 1-11 serves simply as background to the subsequent story of the patriarchs, and their history is in turn background to the story of Israel's exodus from Egypt and the lawgiving
at Sinai which forms the subject matter of Exodus to Deuteronomy.
courtrooms to other lawgiving
forums, most importantly Congress and the