Initially, the spots are spread over the ends of the leaf blade and over time, the damage is more extensive, irregular shapes are distributed throughout the limb with a more brownish color and pycnidia more apparent, or small and localized.
Thus, grass phytoliths, especially those located over the veins in the leaf blade, can have immense significance as diagnostic markers in studies of grassland palaeoecology and ancient climate change (Prasad et al.
Adults of both species leave characteristic feeding scars on the leaf blade surface and lay eggs in leaf petioles, where larvae burrow through leaf tissue, feeding on and damaging both apical and axillary (lateral) meristems (Stark & Goyer 1983; Center et al.
Leaf sheath and shoot cortex of Phragmites were dominant nest material categories of Reed Parrotbills, and leaf blade, inflorescence, and Zizania roots dominated the composition of nest materials of Oriental Reed Warblers in all years.
Herbage samples were divided in two sub-samples, one to determine dry matter and another to evaluate plant components which were separated for green leaf blade (GLB), stem + green sheath (SGS) and dead material (DMT).