Mucosal biopsy was done in 7 patients (41%) and revealed skin granulomas suggesting leishmanial
infection, but amastigotes were seen in only 1 case, which demonstrates the limitation of biopsy in these cases.
ELISA for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis using a monoclonal antibody against a leishmanial
For anti leishmanial
activity previously reported leishmanicidal protocol was followed , Leishmania major (DESTO) promastigotes were cultured at 22 to 25AdegC in RPMI-1640 (Sigma).
Identification of Th1-responsive leishmanial
excretory-secretory antigens (LESAs).
Vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding TSA/LmSTIl Leishmanial
fusion proteins confers protection against Leishmania major Infection in Susceptible BALB/c mice.
The AgNPs augmented antileishmanial effect of miltefosine by ~2-folds, even though AgNPs alone did not show any inhibition against leishmanial
Glomerulonephritis is the main pathological event in leishmanial
nephropathy , but severe glomerular pathology can lead to a variable reduction of GFR [9, 12].
Nakayama et al., "Intraperitoneal immunization with oligomannose-coated liposome-entrapped soluble leishmanial
antigen induces antigen-specific T-helper type immune response in BALB/c mice through uptake by peritoneal macrophages," Parasite Immunology, vol.
Few false positive articles were found to contain the keywords "breast cancer" and "leishmanial
" and therefore, such keywords were added in the search query using "AND NOT" phrase.
(11) In Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, OIF), numerous US Soldiers were exposed to significant leishmaniasis risk and about 1,287 incident diagnoses/reports of leishmaniasis, both cutaneous (1,283 cases) and visceral (4 cases) forms, were reported from 2001-2006 among OEF/OIF deployed troops.12 During OIF, US military entomologists conducted the sand fly surveillance at Tallil Air Base, Iraq, from April 2003 to November 2004, and they noted the strong effect of sand fly vectors on military operations, including the leishmanial
threat to deployed troops in Iraq.
Baasov, "Identification of the molecular attributes required for aminoglycoside activity against Leishmanial
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.