In a cranial magnetic resonance imaging examination, the axial and coronal fluid attenuated inversion recovery images show a widespread T2A hyperintense pathologic signal in bilateral periventricular white matter (Figure 1a, b), and haemorrhagic signals in bilateral lentiform
nucleus, caudate nucleus were detected (Figure 2).
A = at level of basal ganglia; B = at level of ventricles immediately above basal ganglia; CT = computed tomography; CN = caudate nucleus; IC = internal capsule; LN = lentiform
nucleus; I = insular cortex; M1 = anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortex; M2 = lateral MCA cortex; M3 = posterior MCA cortex; M4 = anterior MCA cortex superior to M1; M5 = lateral MCA cortex superior to M2; M6 = posterior MCA cortex superior to M3; A (yellow) = anterior; P (yellow) = posterior.
Wilson disease, Leigh disease, infantile bilateral necrosis, and mitochondrial encephalopathies also show involvement of the lentiform
nucleus, but in these disorders the putamen is predominantly involved rather than the globus pallidus.
These are seen as increased signal intensity in bilateral lentiform
nuclei on T1W images (manganese deposition in the globus pallidi) and cerebral atrophy.
Computed tomography brain scan showing hyperdensity of right caudate and lentiform
In addition, reduced thalamic, caudate, basal ganglia, and lentiform
nuclei volume, increased amygdala activation have been reported in the cases of the CD.
The caudate nucleus and the putamen together are called the striatum using their macroscopic appearance, and the putamen and the globus pallidus together are called the lenticular or lentiform
Earlier ERP and clinical studies further suggest the activation of the right lentiform
nucleus along with basal ganglia for angry, sad, and neutral faces.
The basal ganglia, in particular the lentiform
(putamen and globus pallidus) and caudate nuclei, are the most frequently affected sites although more extensive intracerebral calcification affecting other brain parenchymal structures, as in this patient, may occur [12, 13].
The pathologic pattern was most consistent with FTLD-TDP type A, characterized by innumerable, superficial isocortical neuronal inclusions and neurites in affected areas and intranuclear "lentiform
" inclusions in both cortex and affected subcortical nuclei.
2012) typically recapitulate the human condition, showing nonspecific sulcal widening and hyperintensities in lentiform
nuclei (i.e., putamen and globus pallidus of the basal ganglia) (Torisu et al.
Fairly well circumscribed abnormal signals involving cortex and white matter are noted in left frontal lobe extending into left lentiform
nucleus, in territory of left MCA.