We tried for a long time to introduce Cas9 with plasmids or lentiviruses
, and then to express separately the single-guide RNA in the cell," Schumann said.
Key areas of concentration include: personalized medicine including diagnostics, proteomics, biomarkers, companion diagnostics and related systems; cancer vaccines; immune modulation; stem cells; gene therapy; angiogenesis modulation; signal transduction; and primate lentiviruses
, which cause ovine progressive pneumonia (OPPV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV), can lead to a chronic pneumonia in goats.
10] DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs appear to function as universal attachment factors for primate lentiviruses
, namely HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency viruses.
Now some scientists are attempting gene therapy using lentiviruses
, modified versions of HIV, to deliver genes to patients' cells (SN: 8/10/13, p.
One of these features concerns Nef, a pathogenic factor of primate lentiviruses
, crucial for virus replication and disease progression.
Researchers in immunology, virology, microbiology, genetics, and other medical specialties from Europe and North America first overview the distribution and biological properties of primate lentiviruses
and the emergence of HIV, including features of HIV-1 that distinguish it from HIV-2 and SIVs that replicate efficiently in African non-human primates without causing disease, and the development of these properties and their potential roles in the pathogenesis of AIDS.
are 2 to 4 million years old; filoviruses, 12 to 30 million years.
The new research also provides an animal model to better understand the immune basis for vaccine protection against lentiviruses
, a subclass of viruses that includes HIV and SIV.
and macrophages; molecular and cellular interactions.
There are a number of ways to follow cells in living organisms, including microinjection, electroporation, calcium phosphate precipitation, DEAE-Dextran, liposomes and adenoviruses, lentiviruses
, and retroviruses [13-16].
are potentially good vectors for transporting genetic material into neurons because they can infect dividing and non-dividing cells.