This is particularly evident for Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum, which frequently visits nests of host Bluehead Chub Nocomis leptocephalus
but also spawns separately.
Allain, "Low occurrence rates of ubiquitously present leptocephalus
larvae in the stomach contents of predatory fish," ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol.
(1864) [U]ber einige neue Saugethiere (Mormops, Macrotus, Vesperus, Molossus, Capromys), Amphibien (Platydactylus, Otocryptis, Euprepes, Ungalia, Dromicus, Tropidonotus, Xenodon, Hylodes) und Fische (Sillago, Sebastes, Channa, Myctophum, Carassius, Barbus, Capoeta, Poecilia, Saurenchelys, Leptocephalus
In stage I (leptocephalus
), the leptocephali body is long, transparent, and the head is small; the teeth appear fang-like.
These eels are known only from leptocephalus
larvae, but some have been found with developing eggs, leading to speculation that the species is either neotenic or the adult stage is extremely short-lived (Eschmeyer and others 1983; Mecklenburg and others 2002).
larvae of three families of eels (Chlop-sidae, Congridae, and Muraenidae) coil when sus-pended in water, and at least the latter two families exhibit both clockwise and counterclockwise coiling in published figures (Miller, 2009; Miller et al., 2013).
Based on examination of a large number of leptocephalus
larvae, Smith (1989) pointed out that there were two forms, probably different species, of Elops in the western Atlantic.
IDENTIFICATION OF NOCOMIS LEPTOCEPHALUS
INTEROCULARIS (CYPRINI-DAE) FROM LUMPKIN COUNTY.
Sequences (GenBank accession numbers) from five species of Campostoma (DQ324062.1, DQ324063.1, DQ324064.1, DQ324065.1, EU082476.1, EU082477.1) and Nocomis leptocephalus
(EU082468.1) were included as outgroup taxa.
The recruitment dynamic of Elops hawaiensis leptocephalus
in Gongshtyan creek estuary of northern Taiwan.
lindbergi (Layman, 1930); Yamaguti, 1934; Siddiqi and Cable, 1960 from Leptocephalus
conger, Synodus sp.
Three species (Cyprinella vesnusta eurystoma, Nocomis leptocephalus
, and Ictalurus punctatus) were said to be abundant, suggesting that numerous specimens were originally obtained.