Direct pupillary light reflex
, menace response, and palpebral reflex were present in all birds.
Ears bilaterally symmetrical and equal alignment noted, no ear discharge, tympanic membrane is pink/gray with the light reflex
Pupillary light reflex
(PLR), the contraction response of the pupil to light stimulation , is mainly controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system; hence, pupil changes are not influenced by the external environment or psychological stress .
Neurological Examination revealed--bilateral ptosis; bilaterally dilated pupils not reacting to light; no nystagmus; consensual and accommodation light reflex
absent; normal fundus ; absent external ocular movements in all the directions; power--5/5 in all limbs; tone--Hypotonia; deep tendon reflexes and abdominal reflexes absent; plantar bilaterally mute; impaired tandem walking test.
However after 8 h, the patient was found unconscious with unequal pupils and a blunt light reflex
A 14-year-old female patient presented to our outpatient clinic because of absent pupillary light reflex
on neurological examination performed in another center.
His pupils were isocoric, light reflex
was bilaterally positive, eye movements and vision were normal, diplopia was not present, and otorrhea and rhinorea were absent.
He spoke about the postmortem techniques, cattle necropsy, meat hygiene, papillary light reflex
pathway, integrity of nerves, mummery gland tumour, anatomy, skin, muscles, spay and neuter anatomy, reproduction anatomy, histology, microbiology, rabies/dog bites, epidemiology, clinical procedure etc.
The light reflex
was poorly detected in the right eye due to severe corneal edema.
8C pulse 200/min respiratory rate 60/min capillary refill time 6s lethargy pallor mottled skin pin point miosis poor pupillary light reflex
feeble pulse cold extremities harsh breath sounds fine rales on both lungs muffled heart sounds no murmur and hepatosplenomegaly hypotonia absent Moro reflex.
Her pupil diameter was 4 mm, and her pupillary light reflex
Thomas Hanna, in his book Somatics, (1) described this phenomenon as the red light reflex
, presenting a list of possible responses.