The food of the Lake Nipissing cisco, Leucichthys artedii (LeSueur) with special reference to the utilization of limnetic
They are mainly associated to the littoral areas with stands of macrophytes, although they can also inhabit the limnetic
zone, as their distribution pattern depends on both biotic and abiotic factors (Bennett and Streams, 1986; Bailey, 1987; Streams, 1987a; Gilbert et al., 1999; Foltz and Dodson, 2009).
In the central zone (limnetic
zone) of each lagoon and in the reservoir channel, it was determined vertical profiles (measurements at every 0.5m from the surface to the bottom) of temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH, using a daily calibrated Horiba probe (U-22).
10 m from the point of fish capture to the shore) located in the northern portion of the lake (mean depth = 1.4 m); (2) Pacanda Island (PAC) is a limnetic
zone (more than 30 m from the point of fish capture to the closest shore) adjacent to an island in the center of the lake (mean depth = 6 m); (3) Ucasanastacua (UCA) is a littoral zone located halfway between the northern and southern most sections of the lake (mean depth = 2 m); (4) Napizaro (NAP) is a limnetic
zone located in the southern portion of the lake (mean depth = 2.5 m); (5) Ihuatzio (IHU) is a littoral zone located in the southern portion of the lake (mean depth = 1.9 m); (6) Embarcadero (EMB) is a littoral zone located in the southern portion of the lake, adjacent to the Patzcuaro City (mean depth = 1 m) (Fig.
infans in Lago de Patzcuaro feeds on specific prey from different trophic webs periphytic diatoms (littoral trophic web), cladocerans and secondary consumers like copepods (limnetic
trophic web) and terrestrial adult insects (terrestrial trophic web).This behavior is described by Vadeboncoeur et al.
Temperature regime is an important determinant of cladoceran (Branchipoda: Order: Cladocera) community structure and abundance (Sarma et al., 2005; Stich et al., 2005), as it is with most zooplankton taxa inhabiting limnetic
systems (Mitchell and Lampert, 2000).
Jose de Paggi S (1993) Composition and seasonality of planktonic rotifers in limnetic
and littoral regions of floodplain lakes (Parana river systems).
Spatial and temporal scaling and the organization of limnetic
aculeatus is characterized, in part, by three sets of divergences involving sympatric or parapatric biological species (reviewed by McPhail 1994): parapatric anadromous (sea-run) and freshwater sticklebacks (e.g., Hagen 1967); sympatric lacustrine "limnetic
" and "benthic" sticklebacks (Larson 1976; McPhail 1984, 1992); and parapatric lake and stream sticklebacks (Moodie 1972; Reimchen et al.
Samplings were conducted in March (rainy period) and July (dry period) of 2007, in the water surface and at the bottom, with the aid of a Van Dorn bottle in two sampling sites of the limnetic
region of the lake.
Among aquatic animals, sympatric speciation has been already reported for fish species that diverge between benthic and limnetic
forms (Rundle et al., 2000; Barluenga et al., 2006), and among populations that reproduce in the sea and in rivers (Hendry et al., 2000).