reported five treatment failure cases that were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin
05-0,5 [micro]g/mL), streptomycin (512-2048 [micro]g/mL), kanamycin (128-1024 [micro]g/mL), lincomycin
(1-8 [micro]g/mL), and gentamicin (128-1024 [micro]g/mL).
They found that all of the species isolated have sensitivity for enrofloxacin, fluorphenikol and ciprofloxacin; and also for amoxicillin, ampicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin, fucidic acid, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin
, nalidixic acid, neomycin, novobiocin, oxytetracycline, cefoxitin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim at varying levels.
Conversely, Lactobacilli are usually susceptible to antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis, such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin, lincomycin
, clindamycin and tetracyclines (FEDERICI et al.
Ration F1: standard or control diet with lincomycin
coli indicated highest 23 (92%) sensitivity to Gentamicin and least sensitivity to Lincomycin
The major intramammary antimicrobial treatments that have been used with different success rates to control bovine mastitis include beta-lactams such as natural G penicillins (sodium, potassium, procaine and benzathine), synthetic ones such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and anti-staphylococcus drugs (cloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, meticillin); cephalosporins (Cefapirin, cefalonium, cephalothin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cefquinome); aminoglycosides such as dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin and neomycin; aminocoumarins (novobiocin); fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin); tetracyclines (oxytetracycline); macrolides (erythromycin); lincosamides such as lincomycin
and pirlimycin; chloramphenicol, among others.
Table 1: Antibiotics used for culture sensitivity Antibiotic agent for gram-positive bacteria Disc content ([micro]g) Ampicillin + sulbactam 20 Cotrimoxazole 25 Tetracycline 30 Cefotaxime 30 Ciprofloxacin 5 Levofloxacin 5 Linezolid 30 Cloxacillin 1 Roxithromycin 15 Cephalexin 30 Lincomycin
2 Gentamicin 10 Ampicillin + sulbactam 20 Cotrimoxazole 25 Cefotaxime 30 Ciprofloxacin 5 Tetracycline 30 Gentamicin 10 Piperacillin 100 Chloramphenicol 30 Ceftizoxime 30 Ofloxacin 5 Amikacin 30 Gatifloxacin 10 Table 2: Frequency of organisms isolated by culture Organism No.
Other topical modalities introduced recently in treatment of melasma include zinc sulphate lincomycin
and linoleic acid either alone or in combination with hydroquinone and betamethasone valerate.
Photodegradation of lincomycin
and diazepam in sewage treatment plant effluent by photo-Fenton process.
2% wt/vol; glycerol (Riedel-deHaen, Germany) 7% v/v; egg yolk 20% v/v and antibiotics viz; gentamycin sulphate (Reckitt Benckiser, Pakistan) 500 ug/ml, tylosin tartrate (VMD, Belgium) 100 ug/ml, lincomycin
hydrochloride (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Belgium) 300 ug/ml, and spectinomycin hydrochloride (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Belgium) 600 ug/ml) were added to the extender.
, tylosin, and virginiamycin.