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Linking verbs (also known as copulas or copular verbs) are used to describe the state of being of the subject of a clause. Unlike action verbs (also called dynamic verbs), they connect the subject to the predicate of the clause without expressing any action.
cop•u•la(ˈkɒp yə lə)
n., pl. -las, -lae (-ˌli)
1. something that connects or links together.
2. Also called linking verb. a verb, as be, seem, or look, that serves as a connecting link or establishes an identity between subject and complement.
3. the connecting link between the subject and predicate of a proposition.