Gram-positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan protecting the cell membrane, whereas gram-negative bacteria have an exposed cell membrane displaying lipopolysaccaride
(LPS), a carbohydrate-fat complex.
Previous in vitro and animal studies on macrophages or dendritic cells showed that bacterial products, such as the toll-like receptors ligands lipopolysaccaride
or bacterial DNA (4,5), proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interferon (1,6), or glucocorticoids (7) induce the upregulation of IDO (8).
Perhaps the first research paper of CLA in chickens was about prevention of the reduced body weight induced by lipopolysaccaride
(LPS) (Cook et al.
Among the molecular patterns recognized by complement are lipopolysaccaride
(LPS), a component of the cell wall in gram-negative bacteria (Agramonte-Hevia et al.
(LPS) inhalation in healthy subjects increases neutrophils, lymphocytes and fibronectin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Experimental inflammation can also be induced by intraluminal application of TNBS or lipopolysaccaride
(LPS) into preparations of the rat small intestine in vitro (Warstat et al.
Antibiotic-treated ob/ob mice had significantly improved glucose tolerance; this was attributed to multiple factors including reduced liver triglycerides, increased liver glycogen, increased plasma adiponectin, and reduced plasma lipopolysaccarides
(Membrez et al.
Chemical and biological features of Burkholderia cepacia complex lipopolysaccarides
This essential process supplies the bacteria with precursors for important cellular components such as lipopolysaccarides
and its cell wall.