Geomorphology was predominantly a young karso-tectonic system and was classified as an undulating structural plain with dissolution and denudation, and soils dominated by lithosols
, rendzinas and cambisols (Bautista, Batllori, Palacio, Ortiz, & Castillo, 2005).
Luvisols, Fluvisols, Lithosols
, Acrisols, and Regosols were identified in the study area.
1968) equivalents are Leptic Rudosols (Lithosols
) on crests and steeper slopes, Chromosols (Red and Yellow Podzolic Soils) with some Kandosols (Red and Yellow Earths) on hillslopes and Sodic Chromosols (Sodosols), Kurosols (Soloths), Sodosols (Solodised Solonetz) and Stratic Rudosols (Alluvial Soils) in drainage lines and flood plains (Jenkins 1996).
These are areas with mostly lithosols
and regosols soils, associated with saline soils on lowlands.
Characteristics Areas Sudanian Latitude 8[degrees]10[degrees]-12[degrees]10 Longitude 1[degrees]15'-3[degrees]45' Pluviometry and 900-1100 mm temperature 24[degrees]C-31[degrees]C Seasons Unimodal regime Moisture in the air 18%-99% Soil Drained soils Hydromorphic soils Breastplates Ferralitics Lithosols
Plant formations (i) Savannas (ii) Forest galleries (iii) Dry forests to Combretaceae Characteristic (i) Isoberlinia doka species (ii) I.
Several factors may be considered in making this operation such that the geological substratum, lithosols
, geomorphology, land use and vegetation .
This is the case of the PNV in high mountains, or first coloniser stage vegetation types on dunes, marshes or lithosols
, for example.
According to the FAO/UNESCO classification, the soils are mostly lithosols
with associated rendzinas and chromic luvisols (INEGI, 2000), fertile and moderately developed, with a depth of less than 0.6 m, well drained, acid, alluvial, and are made up of unconsolidated terrigenous deposits having a granulometry varying from thick sand to gravel at the foot of the mountains, and to mud and clay where lands slope less.
Four dominant soil orders, out of a total of 15 orders, form a spatial mosaic covering 66% of the area (Latosols, 19%; Lithosols
, 19%; Argisols, 15%; Luvisols, 13%).
The dominant soils are lithosols
and rendzinas less than 40 cm deep.
What we find is that lake water quality is generally higher in lake catchments with higher levels of rendzinas, lithosols
and podzolic soils as well as sedimentary, metamorphic, and ignesis rock.
Studies show that organic matter influences the rates of water loss, evapotranspiration, soil temperature, aeration, microbial metabolism and the capacity of shallow soils (Lithosols
) to store and provide moisture and nutrients for plant uptake (Agbim, 1985; Mbagwu and Ekwealor, 1990).