In the littoral zone
, migratory organisms can be constrained by onshore predators and lower food quality (Smiley and Tessier, 1998; Wojtal et al., 2007; Gonzalez Sagrario et al., 2009), by quality of refuges concerning the composition of macrophytes (Meerhoff et al., 2007), by unsuitable physical and chemical features, such as low dissolved oxygen within macrophyte stands (Miranda and Hodges, 2000).
This is a comparative study of oxygen concentrations in the littoral zone
and open water in one portion of the reservoir.
If offshore hydrilla is not present, the fish-holding cover will be the littoral zone
. Most drainage lakes are rimmed with shallow vegetation extending outward to a defined weedline in five to seven feet of water.
The flooded littoral zone
of the lake was characterised with insect multiplication while the bottom layers were rich in invertebrates particularly molluscs (Araoye 1997).
For example, bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) commonly switch from feeding in the vegetated littoral zone
to the open-water limnetic zone as they grow (Mittelbach 1981).
Brewster Lake has a maximum depth of 10 m and a littoral zone
(<2 m deep) with dense yellow lily (Nuphar luteum), coontail (CeratophyUum demersum) and various Potamogeton species that extends 2-5 m from the lake's edge.
Considering the large littoral area of Lake Dom Helvecio and the lack of studies on the zooplankton community in this compartment, the present study had two main objectives: to demonstrate the contribution of the littoral zone
to a better characterization of the zooplankton fauna, and to assess these species' distribution in different habitats (littoral zone
with and without aquatic vegetation).
In every lake where a pair of species is found, one of the species (the Limnetic) feeds on plankton in the open-water zone, whereas the other (the Benthic) chiefly exploits prey from the sediments or attached to vegetation in the littoral zone
. Their morphological differences are largely genetically based, and correlate with their differences in habitat and diet.