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loanwords and loan translations
English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
A form of borrowing from one language to another whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the borrowing language. English superman, for example, is a loan translation from German Übermensch. Also called calque.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
(Linguistics) the adoption by one language of a phrase or compound word whose components are literal translations of the components of a corresponding phrase or compound in a foreign language: English "superman" is a loan translation from German "Übermensch.". Also called: calque
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
1. a compound word or expression formed by translation of each of the elements of a compound from another language, as gospel (Old English gōdspell) from Greek euangélion “good news”.
2. the process whereby such a compound is formed.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
A word or phrase created in a language by translating a word or phrase in another language, for example superman” from the German “übermensch.”
Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group Copyright © 2008 by Diagram Visual Information Limited
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|Noun||1.||loan translation - an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"|
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.